Rolfing, Anatomical Planes, Myers’s ‘Anatomy Trains, Fibroblast Cells, Biomechanics, Tensegrity, Neural Plasticity

I do a lot of research to upgrade my therapeutic bodywork skills and knowledge base and this is what I found on these subjects.

Dr. Ida P. Rolf, PHD

MAY 19, 1896 – MARCH 19, 1979

“Rolfers make a life study of relating bodies and their fields to the earth and its gravity field, and we so organize the body that the gravity field can reinforce the body’s energy field. This is our primary concept. “ – Ida P. Rolf.

Ida P. Rolf was born in New York in 1896. She graduated from Barnard College in 1916 and took up a research post at the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research. In 1920 she earned a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Columbia University (NYC) from her research in the behavior of phosphatides (molecules that predominantly makeup cell membranes). She continued her research based on Organic Chemistry for a further 7 years, publishing many papers over that time.

In 1927, she took a leave of absence from her work to study mathematics and atomic physics at the Swiss Technical University in Zurich. During this time, she also studied homeopathic medicine in Geneva.

Returning from Europe, she spent the decade of the 1930s seeking answers to personal and family health problems. Medical treatment available at that time seemed inadequate to her; this led to her exploration of osteopathy, chiropractic medicine, yoga, the Alexander technique, Physio-synthesis, and Korzybski’s work on states of consciousness.

By the 1940s, she was working in a Manhattan apartment where her schedule was filled with people seeking help. She was committed to the scientific point of view, and yet many breakthroughs came intuitively through the work she did with chronically disabled persons unable to find help elsewhere. This was the work eventually to be known as Structural Integration. For the next thirty years, Ida Rolf devoted herself to developing her technique and training programs.













During the 1950s, her reputation spread to England where she spent summers as a guest of John Bennett, a prominent mystic and student of Gurdjieff. Then, in the mid-60s, Dr. Rolf was invited to the Esalen Institute (a retreat Centre which focuses on the development of human potential) in California at the suggestion of Fritz Perls, founder of Gestalt Therapy. There she began training practitioners and instructors of Structural Integration and it was at this time that the infamous nickname of “Rolfing” arose from her session work.

The more Structural Integration classes Ida Rolf taught, the more students sought admission to training. Newspaper and magazine articles began featuring the person and work of Ida Rolf, and soon the necessity for a formal organization became apparent. As early as 1967, a school for Structural Integration was loosely formed and eventually headquartered in a private home in Boulder, Colorado. Until her death in 1979, Ida Rolf actively advanced training classes, giving direction to her organization, planning research projects, writing, publishing, and public speaking.

A few years after her death, the school was divided into “The Guild of Structural Integration” and “The Rolf Institute”. Over the years, the evolution of the work has led to a number of schools developing from Dr. Rolf’s direct students. These subsets include Hellerwork (Joseph Heller), Kinesis Myofascial Integration – KMI (Tom Myers), and Soma Neuromuscular Integration (Bill Williams).

What is Rolfing?

Plus, Rolfing, also known as Structural Integration, is a form of bodywork that focuses on realigning and reorganizing the body’s connective tissues, primarily the fascia, to improve overall physical functioning and well-being. Developed by Dr. Ida Rolf in the mid-20th century, Rolfing aims to optimize the body’s structure and alignment by addressing imbalances, restrictions, and areas of tension.

Here is an in-depth overview of Rolfing and its potential benefits:

  1. Structural Integration: Rolfing focuses on integrating and aligning the body’s structure. It works with the fascia, a complex network of connective tissues that surround and interpenetrate muscles, bones, and organs. By manipulating the fascia through deep tissue work and movement education, Rolfing aims to create more efficient and balanced alignment.
  2. Improved Posture and Body Awareness: Rolfing can help improve posture and body awareness by releasing tension and restrictions in the fascia. As the body becomes more aligned and balanced, individuals may experience increased ease and efficiency in movement. This can have a positive impact on daily activities, athletic performance, and overall physical well-being.
  3. Pain Relief and Rehabilitation: Rolfing has been reported to alleviate chronic pain and discomfort by addressing the underlying structural imbalances that contribute to the pain. By releasing tension and restoring balance in the fascial system, Rolfing may provide relief from conditions such as back pain, neck pain, joint pain, and repetitive strain injuries. It can also aid in the rehabilitation process after an injury or surgery.
  4. Increased Flexibility and Range of Motion: Rolfing aims to improve flexibility and range of motion by releasing restrictions in the fascia that may limit movement. By lengthening and reorganizing the fascial tissues, Rolfing can help individuals achieve greater freedom and ease in their physical activities.
  5. Enhanced Body Awareness and Emotional Well-being: Rolfing is often described as a holistic approach that not only addresses physical aspects but also promotes emotional and psychological well-being. Through the process of Rolfing, individuals may develop a heightened sense of body awareness, increased self-confidence, and a greater connection between the body and mind.
  6. Stress Reduction: Rolfing can help reduce stress by releasing physical tension and promoting relaxation. The deep tissue work and manipulation of the fascia can induce a sense of calmness and provide a reset for the nervous system.
  7. Improved Breathing: Rolfing can help optimize breathing patterns by addressing postural imbalances and restrictions in the chest and diaphragm. By releasing tension and improving alignment in these areas, Rolfing may enhance respiratory function and increase overall vitality.

It’s important to note that while many individuals have reported positive outcomes from Rolfing, scientific research on its specific benefits is limited. More rigorous studies are needed to provide conclusive evidence of its effectiveness for various conditions. If you’re considering Rolfing, it’s advisable to consult with a certified and experienced Rolfer who can assess your individual needs and provide personalized recommendations.

What is Rolfing? – the short answer is a form of body therapy born in the US in the late 40’s. The founder of Rolfing Structural Integration, Dr Ida P Rolf, a very curious and intelligent Bio-Chemist from Colombia University, discovered that when the human posture is improved the physiology, coordination, and psychology of that person also benefit. Conversely, Dr. Rolf found out that “bad”, misaligned posture affects the way we move, digest and breathe, and our mood is affected too. Moreover, throughout the years of her research, Dr Rolf discovered that to achieve lasting postural alignment it is best to undertake a course of 10 sessions of Structural Integration, later called the Rolfing 10 series. As Dr. Rolf said:

In Structural Integration, we expect to give a cycle of ten sessions. There is a reason for this. We are not dealing with local problems. We are not dealing with the kind of thing that you can say “Well, I fixed that; that’s all.” We are dealing with an attempt to make a body a sturdier human being, to make it more secure, more adequate within the field of gravity.

Each Rolfing session has its own distinctive theme, anatomical territory and objective. Each session also builds on the result of the previous session and opens the space for the next one. The Rolfer works with the client through touch and verbal feedback to elicit lasting change on the level of the body structure (how we look), coordination (how we move) and perception (how we use our senses). This is perhaps why Rolfing should be thought of more as an embodied educational process that the person goes through rather than a technique designed to fix localized ailments. The effectiveness of Rolfing lies precisely in its educational, holistic approach to the body. Rolfing technique thus carries an understanding of the human body not as a mechanism, but rather as a interlinked, highly intelligent self-regulating system. This understanding allows Rolfers to focus not on quick fixes but on creating optimal conditions for client’s healing and optimal functioning over the initial 10-session period. Many people choose to continue their Rolfing Journey after the foundation of the Ten Series at their own pace.

How can Rolfing help me?

When people ask “What is Rolfing?” they really mean “What can Rolfing do for me?” Rolfing has many physical and psychological benefits, both for people who feel something is amiss in their body, as well as for improving already good health.

Improve poor posture and resulting pains

If you suffer from chronically bad posture, and your life habits are sedentary, then working with a Rolfer is great in helping you to come back into shape. Each session will slowly but surely release the age-old restrictions around your neck, chest, upper back, pelvis and lumbar and your posture will begin to evolve towards better alignment and gradually pains will ease off. Already after the first session you may discover that your breath feels easier and that your hips are bit more mobile; this will allow you move with more ease and tackle this New Year’s gym challenge with more confidence.

Performance and coordination improvement

If you are a sports person, a performing artist, a runner, a swimmer, or a dancer Rolfing is great for improving your coordination and economy of movement. After and even during your 10 Rolfing process you may expect your techniques and results to improve. All of my running & swimming clients reported improvement in their technique, coordination, and increased performance results.

Body Confidence, self-awareness, stress reduction

The educational approach that Rolfers use is a tool for developing a greater sense of self-awareness and embodied well-being. This benefit is perhaps the most difficult one to explain. but if you find yourself lacking in body confidence in challenging situations, and your body seems “like a stranger” when you need to be seen in public then Rolfing may be a good direction to take. See the Ginger public speaking training website for more info on Body Confidence.

Rolfing® Structural Integration to Improve IT Band Issues


More localized problems that many athletes face are, in reality, the result of a general imbalance throughout the body. Consider a common performance issue – a tight Iliotibial band (a.k.a. the “IT Band”). Many practitioners may use massage or stretching on the outside of the thigh to treat this issue. In reality, treating the IT Band requires an understanding of how this tendon extends from the combination of the Gluteus Maximus and Tensor Fascia Lata muscles, and how it is also affected by the Gluteus Medius and Minimus muscles. If the sides and front rear of the pelvis in the muscle-fascia parts are first lengthened, one can then spread the fascia down the IT Band and it feels better, improving performance.

These problems are addressed specifically through structural integration in a way that goes far beyond traditional sports massage and stretching. By addressing the basic structure of the body, how it moves, and how muscles power motion and drive athletic performance, we can improve the body’s performance by properly aligning its basic structure.

Muscle pulls, stiffness, and tightness that inhibit athletic performance are part of a larger picture addressed through Rolfing® Structural integration. What is the result of structural integration for athletes? Less discomfort, fewer bone and joint issues, and a greater overall feeling of freedom of movement throughout the body.

In most cases, persistent training issues that rob the body of performance are simply manifests of issues within the body’s core structure. We know that many muscle and joint problems are actually caused by soft connective tissue problems, specifically:  short, hard, and soft connective tissue in and around the muscles that is rarely stretched out and almost never massaged out.

Rolfing is a form of deep tissue manipulation. The name comes from its inventor, Dr. Rolf, who referred to it as “Structural Integration.”

The idea behind Rolfing is that the body works best when all its parts are in alignment. When the body is out of alignment, it moves in a way that is unbalanced, which can result in discomfort and pain.

Dr. Rolf also believed that this type of disharmony results in the body having to work harder against gravity, giving a person less energy.

Rolfing aims to address these problems by loosening and manipulating fascia, which is the connective tissue that surrounds bones, organs, nerves, and muscles. Practitioners claim that by working with this tissue, they can reorganize parts of the body that are out of alignment and so resolve medical conditions.

Origins of Rolfing

Dr. Rolf began writing about Structural Integration in the 20th century. Her background was in biochemistry. She received a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1920, before going on to research organic chemistry at the Rockefeller Institute.

Although she did not have a medical degree, Dr. Rolf was a scientist who wanted to find treatments for the chronic conditions with which she and others were living. She began experimenting with alternative health practices, such as yoga and chiropractic, to try to understand the body’s structure.

Using observations from her studies, Dr. Rolf came to believe that the body works best when the bones are in alignment. From there, she developed her theories about Structural Integration.

Rolfing vs. massage therapy

Rolfing and massage are similar in that they use tissue manipulation to benefit a person’s health. However, they involve different techniques and usually have different goals.

Although massage might promote relaxation, ease muscle tension, or even reduce certain medical symptoms, such as back pain, people do not always use it for medical purposes. When they do, it is usually in addition to other treatments.

Rolfing, on the other hand, aims to treat medical conditions. It also has more elements, and sessions involve more than tissue manipulation. According to the Dr. Ida Rolf Institute website, Rolfing practitioners:

  • Palpate: Practitioners touch the tissues through the skin, looking for indications of imbalances in tissue texture, quality, or temperature.
  • Discriminate: Next, Rolfing practitioners claim to separate layers of fascia that have become dislodged from the correct position or stuck to muscles.
  • Integrate: Finally, the sessions finish with integration, which is when the practitioner aims to improve the relationship between body parts in accordance with Dr. Rolf’s theories about movement and gravity. This can involve movement education as well as tissue manipulation.

Although people can find Rolfing relaxing and cathartic, the Institute says that these benefits are only byproducts of the sessions.

Benefits and uses of Rolfing

The Dr. Ida Rolf Institute claims that Rolfing helps by:

  • releasing tension from connective tissues
  • resolving chronic pain
  • altering and improving posture
  • improving flexibility
  • reducing the negative effects of stress
  • increasing energy
  • enhancing neurological function
  • creating emotional harmony

Very few studies confirm these claims.

An older 2014 study looked at whether Rolfing could help with myofascial pain syndrome, which is when a person has pain in the muscles or fascia in a specific location. The pain can occur in response to specific movements or muscle triggers, sometimes in a different part of the body to the location of the trigger.

The study involved 40 participants, 20 of whom received Rolfing therapy while 20 did not. The control group saw no improvements in their pain scores, while the people who received Rolfing therapy saw significant improvements.

However, a 2015 study tested Rolfing in 46 people with lower back pain. The authors concluded that Rolfing did not substantially relieve pain.

This suggests that Rolfing may help with myofascial pain but possibly not with other conditions. However, both studies were very small, so it is difficult to draw firm conclusions from either.

Some people may find Rolfing beneficial, but there is currently no strong scientific evidence that it can cure any medical condition.

Criticisms and Risks of Rolfing

Rolfing has similarities with massage, which is generally a safe Trusted Source. However, relying on Rolfing as a treatment for musculoskeletal pain that has no clear cause could pose a risk to a person’s health.

Some causes of musculoskeletal pain are progressive, meaning that they get worse over time. Others, such as osteoporosis, require medical treatment to prevent complications.

If a person has new or persistent pain, they should not try Rolfing without speaking with a doctor first. Only a doctor can diagnose the root cause of the pain.

Rolfing technique

Rolfing involves a set of sessions known as the Ten-Series. These sessions focus on releasing tension in different areas of the body before moving into the integration phase.

The Ten-Series includes the following steps: The recipe


Rolfers posit that they manipulate the body’s fascial layers.[24][25] Rolfing also uses a combination of active and passive movement retraining.[26]

Rolfing is typically performed in a progression of 10 sessions, sometimes called “the recipe”.[2] The first three sessions of the protocol focus on superficial tissues, the next four focus on deeper tissues and specifically the pelvis, and the final sessions address the whole body.[8][14][17]

A session typically lasts between 60 and 90 minutes. The recipient wears undergarments.[22] Positions for the work include lying on a table, sitting, and standing.[19]

Rolfing treatments are sometimes painful.[5] For adults, there may be moments of intense sensation during treatment or soreness afterward.[20] However, the technique can be done gently enough for children and the elderly.[27] Rolf believed fascia tightens as a protective mechanism and therefore thought an aggressive approach could be counter-productive.[28]

Discuss in-depth the 10 Rolfing sessions

The Rolfing 10-Series is a recipe of 10 sessions that starts with superficial layers, then goes deeper, with each session stacking up on top of the last session. Each session is completely different, catering to each individual’s needs. The objective of Rolfing Structural Integration is to get gravity to flow through us, instead of working against us. When gravity is flowing, we are more fluid with our movements, we stand and sit effortlessly, we have space in between bones, muscles, nerves, and organs, we are grounded yet at the same time lengthened, and we become more mature and confident about our body.


Rolfing typically consists of a series of ten sessions, each building upon the progress made in the previous session. Here’s an overview of the ten Rolfing sessions:

  1. Session 1: “Opening the Sleeve” -Sleeve, meaning the superficial fascia under the skin layer and the superficial muscles and some nerves. The first session focuses on establishing a foundation for the series. The Rolfer assesses the client’s posture, movement patterns, and areas of tension. Techniques are used to release the superficial fascial layers and begin creating space for improved alignment.
  2. Session 2: “Balancing the Foundation” – This session aims to bring balance to the lower body, particularly the feet, legs, and pelvis. The Rolfer works on releasing restrictions and aligning the legs and pelvis to improve stability and support.
  3. Session 3: “Lengthening the Sides” – The focus shifts to the sides of the body, addressing imbalances between the ribcage, pelvis, and legs. The goal is to create more length and openness in the torso, allowing for improved breathing and better posture.
  4. Session 4: “Unwinding the Arms” – This session targets the arms, hands, and shoulders. The Rolfer works on releasing tension and restrictions in the upper body, promoting better mobility and alignment.
  5. Session 5: “Releasing the Neck and Shoulders” – Here, attention is given to the neck, head, and shoulders. Techniques are used to release tension in the neck and shoulders, improving head and neck alignment and relieving chronic patterns of tension.
  6. Session 6: “Integrating the Upper and Lower Body” – This session focuses on integrating the work done in the previous sessions. The Rolfer works to establish a harmonious connection between the upper and lower body, promoting overall balance and coordination.
  7. Session 7: “Balancing the Core” – The core, including the abdomen, back, and pelvic floor, is the focus of this session. The Rolfer works to release tension and improve alignment in these areas, supporting a strong and stable core.
  8. Session 8: “Creating Ease in the Breath” – Breathing patterns are addressed in this session. The Rolfer helps the client develop a fuller, more relaxed breath by releasing restrictions in the chest, ribs, and diaphragm.
  9. Session 9: “Integration and Structural Alignment” – The aim of this session is to further integrate the body’s structures and address any remaining imbalances. The Rolfer works to refine overall alignment, promoting greater ease of movement.
  10. Session 10: “Integration and Closure” – The final session serves as a conclusion to the series. The Rolfer evaluates the progress made throughout the sessions and works to solidify the changes in the body. This session often focuses on the client’s goals and provides guidance for maintaining the results achieved.

It’s important to note that while this sequence is a general guideline, the specific approach may vary depending on the individual needs and goals of the client. Each session typically lasts around 60-90 minutes, and the ten-session series is designed to create lasting changes in the body’s structure and movement patterns.


The muscles of the back 3d medical vector illustration eps 10



DETAILS of the 10 Sessions

  • Session one: The first session focuses on loosening and rebalancing the top layers of connective tissue in the neck, diaphragm, rib cage, arms, spine, upper legs, and hamstrings.

Session 1: Open The Superficial Fascia

Session One has the intention of the “Breath.” Breath is the most important item we need in order to live. We can go days without food and water, but we cannot survive after 3 minutes with no breath. (Please do not try to hold your breath for more than 3 minutes, it could cause brain damage.) The breath will usually go to the area in our body with the least resistance. Then manipulate the fascia and ask for movement to get your breath to go where it normally doesn’t. This will help get more oxygen and blood flow into the body.

Some general techniques that may be used in the first session of Rolfing:

  1. Structural assessment: The Rolfer will begin by conducting a structural assessment of your body, observing your posture, movement patterns, and any areas of tension or imbalance. This assessment helps the practitioner understand your body’s unique structure and identify areas that require attention.
  2. Client history and goals: The Rolfer will discuss your medical history, previous injuries, and any specific goals or concerns you have regarding your body. This information helps guide the session and allows the practitioner to tailor the techniques to your needs.
  3. Palpation: The practitioner will use their hands to palpate and feel the tissues and structures of your body, such as muscles, fascia, and joints. This allows them to assess the quality of the tissues, locate areas of tension or restriction, and determine the appropriate techniques to use.
  4. Soft tissue manipulation: Rolfing typically involves deep tissue manipulation and release. The practitioner may use their hands, fingers, knuckles, or elbows to apply pressure and work on the fascia, which is a connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles and other structures. Techniques such as kneading, stretching, and mobilization may be employed to release tension and improve tissue mobility.
  5. Movement education: Rolfers often incorporate movement education and awareness exercises during the session. This may involve guiding you through specific movements or postures that help you become more aware of your body and develop healthier movement patterns.
  6. Homework and self-care recommendations: At the end of the session, the Rolfer may provide you with personalized recommendations for self-care exercises, stretches, or lifestyle adjustments that can support the changes initiated during the session. These recommendations are intended to enhance the effectiveness of the Rolfing process between sessions.

Plus –

We begin by opening the superficial fascia, giving particular attention to its attachments at bony margins (e.g., the iliac crest and scapular spine) and to regions where it limits the position of major bony segments (e.g., superficial rib fascia and femoral head fascia). This is essentially preparatory, as a restriction in this outermost layer limits changes in layers below.

Structurally, we differentiate the thorax from the shoulder girdle, the thorax from the pelvis, and the pelvis from the legs. This differentiation is a precondition for a balanced and palintonic arrangement among these major segments. For example, as femoral rotation approaches neutral, the pelvis has greater independence from the legs and can find better balance over the feet. This, in turn, allows the pelvis to provide greater support for the thorax.

Functionally, Session 1 frees the breath. The oncogenic logic is evident: a newborn’s first act is a deep breath. Improving the pelvis as a base of support enables adaptable sagittal plane movement of the upper body’s center of gravity (at the approximate level of T4), which Rolfers call G-prime (G′).

One such structure, the interosseous membrane, is a fibrous tissue with an oblique orientation from the radius to the ulna. The membrane maintains the interosseous space between the radius and ulna through forearm rotation and actively transfers forces from the radius to the ulna.,the%20back%20of%20the%20leg.

What is the function of the interosseous membrane of the leg?
The interosseous membrane of the leg (middle tibiofibular ligament) extends between the interosseous crests of the tibia and fibula, helps stabilize the Tib-Fib relationship and separates the muscles on the front from those on the back of the leg.


  • Session two: The second session works on the arms, rib cage, diaphragm, upper legs, hamstrings, spine, and neck, with the goal of providing stability through balancing the foot and lower leg muscles.

Session 2: Establish A Base Of Support

Session Two is all about our foundation and support for the body. This session involves the feet, lower legs, and knees. This session may make the feet wider for those who need it. Our feet are not meant for shoes, they should be gripping and pushing off of the ground. Our lower legs act as shock absorbers for the rest of the body. If the lower legs are too tight, then the knees and hips will be compromised.

The general techniques used in session two of Rolfing. Please note that specific techniques may vary depending on the practitioner and the individual needs of the client.

  1. Assessment: The Rolfer begins by assessing the changes and adaptations that occurred in the client’s body since the previous session. This assessment helps Rolfer identify areas of tension, misalignment, and restricted movement that need attention during the session.
  2. Structural Integration: Rolfing aims to create better alignment and balance within the body’s structure. In session two, the Rolfer may continue working on the superficial layers of the body, addressing issues such as postural imbalances, misalignments, and tensions. The Rolfer may use their hands, fingers, knuckles, or elbows to apply pressure and manipulate the soft tissues.
  3. Fascial Manipulation: Rolfing emphasizes the manipulation of the body’s fascia, which is a network of connective tissues that surrounds muscles, bones, and organs. The Rolfer may use various techniques to release tension and adhesions within the fascia, such as direct pressure, stretching, and kneading.
  4. Movement Education: Rolfing sessions often involve movement education to help clients develop greater body awareness and improve their posture and movement patterns. The Rolfer may guide the client through specific exercises or movements to encourage more efficient and integrated movement.
  5. Client Participation: Rolfing is an interactive process, and clients are often encouraged to actively participate in the session. This can involve providing feedback to the Rolfer, expressing sensations or emotions that arise during the session, and actively engaging in movements or exercises.



The upright body needs sound and adaptable feet. Loaded with mechanoreceptors, the feet gather information for the entire body to maintain balance. As the fascial system as a whole responds to gravity, better feet allow greater ease throughout the body. Session 2 differentiates and makes adaptable the myofascial and bones of the feet and lower legs, and begins to release fascial restrictions of posterior structures such as hamstrings and spinal erectors.

Structurally, Session 2 balances the feet from front to back, and from the lateral arch to the medial arch (through the transverse arch); restores resilience to the interosseus membrane of the lower leg; and organizes the medial, lateral, and posterior compartments of the lower leg. This brings greater order to G (the lower body’s center of gravity, located at approximately L4) by giving the lower body a better place to rest its weight.

Functionally, it decouples the foot’s intrinsic muscles from the extrinsic muscles crossing the ankle, allowing the toes movement independent of the ankles and improving the propulsion phase of the gait. Stimulation of the intrinsic muscles improves contact with the ground and introduces movement in the frontal plane by restoring the interplay between the cuboid and navicular bones. This enhances the ability of the feet (in conjunction with the eyes, inner ear, and temporomandibular joint) (Bricot 2001) to maintain dynamic equilibrium.

Work on the superficial spinal erectors begins the task of optimizing the transition point for the contralateral spinal movement, ideally located between T8 and T10. A higher transition produces a long or exaggerated lordosis, which dissipates the impulse coming from the legs at the level of the abdomen. This manifests as excessive motion in the pelvic girdle and legs relative to that of the shoulder girdle and arms. Conversely, a transition below T8/T10 produces relatively flat lumbar and a long or exaggerated kyphosis. This configuration cannot efficiently transform the impulse from the legs into contralateral movement at the axial level, and the shoulder girdle and arms will compensate with excessive motion relative to that of the pelvic girdle and legs.

  • Session three: In this session, the practitioner aims to understand how a person’s head, shoulder girdle, and hips line up when the person is standing.

  • Session Three is about the “Vertical Line.” When looking at a client’s profile, the Rolfer will line up the ear to shoulder to hip to knee to ankle. This will create a vertical line and at the same time correct any twisting that may be happening. This session also starts to get deeper by visiting the side of the psoas muscles and the quadratus lumborum muscles. This session balances the front and back of our bodies.

A general overview of what might be involved in a typical Session 3 of Rolfing:

  1. Assessment: The practitioner will begin by assessing your body’s alignment and movement patterns. They may observe your standing posture, walking, and any specific issues or concerns you have.
  2. Focused Work: Session 3 typically involves working with the lower body, including the legs, feet, and hips. The practitioner will use their hands, fingers, knuckles, and sometimes forearms to apply gentle pressure and manipulate the soft tissues, fascia, and muscles in these areas.
  3. Myofascial Release: Rolfing emphasizes the release and reorganization of fascia, the connective tissue that surrounds and supports the muscles, bones, and organs. The practitioner may use various myofascial release techniques to stretch and release tension in the fascia, helping to improve mobility and alignment.
  4. Movement Education: Rolfing aims to create long-term changes in your posture and movement habits. During Session 3, the practitioner may provide movement education and guidance, suggesting exercises or stretches to enhance the integration of the structural changes achieved in the session.
  5. Integration and Balancing: The session will conclude with efforts to integrate the changes made and bring balance to your body. The practitioner may work on integrating the work done in Session 3 with the previous sessions, creating a more balanced and aligned structure overall.

  • Session four: This session focuses on the areas between the inside arch of a person’s foot and the bottom of their lower pelvis.

  • Sessions 4, 5, 6, and 7 are the “Core Sessions.” These sessions get deeper into the body, differentiating muscles that are closer to bones, organizing the digestive system, balancing the pelvis, and loosening fascia in and around our head.
  • Session Four organizes the inner midline of the legs and up into the pelvic floor. This session helps with any rotations someone may have with their legs while standing. This session will create a much larger stride while walking or running.

A general overview of the goals and techniques commonly employed throughout the Rolfing series.

  1. Assessment: Before each session, the Rolfer will assess your body’s structure and alignment to identify areas of tension, imbalance, or restriction.
  2. Fascial Manipulation: Rolfing primarily focuses on manipulating the fascia, a connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, bones, and organs. Techniques such as myofascial release, deep tissue manipulation, and sustained pressure are used to release tension and adhesions within the fascia.
  3. Movement Education: Rolfing aims to enhance body awareness and improve movement patterns. The Rolfer may guide you through specific movements, exercises, or body awareness exercises to help you develop more efficient and balanced movement patterns.
  4. Body Segment Integration: Rolfing works on the body as a whole, considering the relationship between different body segments. In session 4, the Rolfer may focus on integrating the work done in the previous sessions and addressing any imbalances or restrictions that may arise as the body starts to realign.
  5. Breathwork: Breath awareness and integration are often emphasized in Rolfing. The Rolfer may guide you in breathing exercises to enhance relaxation, release tension, and support the realignment of the body.
  6. Client-Centered Approach: Rolfing sessions are tailored to each individual’s needs and goals. The Rolfer will take into account your specific concerns and work with you to address them during the session.

  • Session five: The fifth session aims to balance the surface and deep abdominal muscles with the curve of the back.

  • Session Five has the main focus on the “Psoas” and the entire front of the body. This session can also help with digestion. The psoas muscles are connected from the front side of the spine and then to the lesser trochanter of the femur bones. When this muscle is working properly, it can initiate leg movement and act as a stabilizer for the body. It will feel like our legs go all the way up to the diaphragm.

Some common techniques that may be employed during the fifth session of Rolfing:


  1. Fascial Manipulation: Rolfers often use various manual techniques to manipulate the fascia, which is the connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, bones, and organs. This may involve applying gentle pressure or traction to release tension and restrictions in the fascia.
  2. Segmental Analysis: During the fifth session, the Rolfer may assess specific segments of the body, such as the head, neck, and shoulders, as well as the pelvic region. They may evaluate the alignment, mobility, and balance of these segments to identify any areas that require attention.
  3. Core Integration: Rolfing aims to enhance the integration and coordination of the body’s core muscles. The Rolfer may use techniques to engage and activate the deep core muscles, such as the transverse abdominis and pelvic floor muscles, to improve stability and support in the trunk.
  4. Movement Education: Rolfers often provide movement education and postural awareness exercises to help clients develop more efficient movement patterns. This may involve guiding the client through specific movements, such as walking or sitting while emphasizing proper alignment and body mechanics.
  5. Breath Work: Rolfing sessions may incorporate breath work to facilitate relaxation, enhance body awareness, and encourage the release of tension. The practitioner may guide the client through breathing exercises that promote deep diaphragmatic breathing and help to relieve restrictions in the chest and ribcage.
  6. Integration and Balancing: In the fifth session, the Rolfer will work on integrating the changes made in the previous sessions and ensuring that the body’s structure is balanced and aligned as a whole. They may address any remaining areas of tension or imbalance to further improve overall posture and movement.

  • Session six: This session works on movement in the legs to build support for the pelvis and lower back.

  • Session Six has the intention of the “Sacrum” and the entire back side of the body. The yogis also say the sacrum is sacred, because the sacrum holds a lot of emotions. The sacrum is the bottom of the spinal column. It should be independent of the hip bones. When our breath is flowing through the spine, the sacrum will move.

Some general techniques commonly used in session 6:

  1. Body Assessment: At the beginning of the session, the practitioner will assess your body’s current alignment, movement patterns, and any areas of tension or restriction. This assessment helps them understand your specific needs and tailor the session accordingly.
  2. Fascial Manipulation: Rolfing places significant emphasis on working with the fascia, a connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, bones, and organs. In session 6, the practitioner may use hands-on techniques to release tension and adhesions within the fascia. This could involve gentle stretching, sliding, or kneading of the tissues to promote greater freedom of movement.
  3. Integration of the Upper and Lower Body: Session 6 often focuses on integrating the upper and lower body. The practitioner may work on aligning the pelvis, spine, and shoulders to establish better balance and coordination between these regions. This can involve specific hands-on techniques to release tension and reposition the body’s segments.
  4. Core Support and Stability: Building upon previous sessions, session 6 may address core support and stability. The practitioner may guide you through movements and exercises that engage the deep core muscles, promoting a more stable and grounded posture. This can enhance overall body alignment and ease of movement.
  5. Movement Education: Rolfing sessions often incorporate movement education to help you develop a more efficient and integrated movement pattern. The practitioner may provide guidance on proper body mechanics, posture, and specific exercises or stretches that can support the changes achieved during the session.

  • Session seven: This session works on the person’s head and neck.

  • Session Seven involves the head and neck. This session also consists of intra-oral and intra-nasal work. This session will place our heads back onto our bodies and it completes the “Core Sessions.”

Some common techniques that may be employed during session 7 of Rolfing:

  1. Review and assessment: The practitioner will begin by reviewing the progress made in previous sessions and assessing the changes in the client’s body structure and movement patterns.
  2. Pelvic balancing: Session 7 often involves working with the pelvis to address any imbalances or restrictions. The practitioner may use hands-on techniques to release tension, mobilize the pelvis, and encourage better alignment.
  3. Leg and footwork: Rolfing recognizes the importance of the feet and their impact on the overall body structure. The practitioner may focus on releasing tension and realigning the legs and feet through various manual techniques, such as myofascial release, stretching, and gentle joint mobilization.
  4. Core integration: Session 7 often involves integrating the work done in previous sessions by connecting the core structures of the body, including the pelvis, abdomen, and ribcage. The practitioner may use deep tissue manipulation, movement education, and breath awareness to enhance core integration and support a more balanced posture.
  5. Movement exploration: Rolfing aims to create lasting changes in movement patterns. During session 7, the practitioner may guide the client through movement exercises, such as walking or specific functional movements, to encourage the integration of the structural changes achieved in previous sessions.
  6. Body awareness and education: Rolfing emphasizes the importance of body awareness and self-care. The practitioner may provide insights and education on posture, movement habits, and exercises that can support the client’s ongoing progress outside of the session.

  • Sessions eight and nine: Both of these sessions focus on the integration of movement in various areas of the body to enhance coordination.

  • Sessions 8, 9, and 10 are the “Integrative Sessions.” This group of sessions completes any issues that are remaining and brings the client back into the world.
  • Sessions Eight and Nine are interchangeable as either an upper or lower session. These sessions get the lumbodorsal hinge to lengthen and have space, get the hips balanced and moving independently, bring contralateral movement with the shoulders and legs, and get the head to slightly bounce while walking.

A general overview of the typical techniques and goals in Rolfing session 8.

  1. Assessment: The session typically begins with a brief assessment of the client’s posture, movement patterns, and any specific issues or goals they have mentioned. The Rolfer may observe how the client stands, walks, and moves to gain insights into their body’s alignment and movement patterns.
  2. Fascial Manipulation: Rolfing primarily focuses on the manipulation of fascia, which is the connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, bones, and organs. The Rolfer uses their hands, fingers, knuckles, or elbows to apply precise and targeted pressure, stretching, or manipulation to release tension and restrictions in the fascia.
  3. Movement Education: Rolfing often incorporates movement education to help clients develop greater awareness of their bodies and improve their movement patterns. The Rolfer may guide the client through specific exercises or movements designed to promote better posture, coordination, and body alignment.
  4. Integration: Rolfing aims to create greater integration and balance within the body. The Rolfer may work on different areas of the body during session 8 to address specific structural relationships and patterns of tension. The techniques used may vary depending on the client’s needs and Rolfer’s assessment.
  5. Breath and Emotional Awareness: Rolfing recognizes the connection between the body and emotions. The Rolfer may guide the client in exploring their breath patterns and emotional responses during the session. This can help the client release emotional holding patterns that may be contributing to physical tension.

A general overview of what you might expect during this stage of the process. Please keep in mind that different Rolfers may have their own variations and adaptations of the techniques. It’s best to consult with your specific Rolfer for precise information about your session 9.

  1. Assessment: At the beginning of Session 9, the Rolfer will assess your progress and take into account the changes that have occurred in your body throughout the previous sessions.
  2. Continuation of Previous Work: The Rolfer will continue addressing any unresolved issues from previous sessions and work on further releasing and aligning the fascial and muscular structures in your body.
  3. Integration and Balancing: Session 9 typically focuses on integrating the work done in previous sessions and ensuring that the changes made are balanced throughout the body. The Rolfer may work on connecting different areas, releasing any remaining restrictions, and encouraging improved overall alignment.
  4. Targeted Areas: Depending on your individual needs and the patterns of tension and misalignment in your body, specific areas may be targeted during Session 9. This could include addressing issues in the lower back, hips, legs, or any other region requiring attention.
  5. Movement Education: Rolfing often includes movement education to help you become more aware of your body and how to move with improved alignment and efficiency. In Session 9, you might receive guidance on specific movement exercises or practices that can support the changes made during the Rolfing series.


  • Session ten: The last session focuses on integration, order, and balance throughout the body.

  • Session Ten is the final session. This session addresses any minor hiccups that may be occurring. This session is to bring closure, holism, adaptability, palitonicity, support, and continuity to the body.
  • Once the 10-Series is completed, the body will keep integrating the work for 4 months to a year depending on your age. Your body will not completely revert back to your old pattern. You may need to have a tune-up session once a year to keep your new pattern flowing.

A general idea of what might be involved in this session. It’s important to consult with a certified Rolfing practitioner for accurate and personalized information.

Session 10 of Rolfing, also known as the “Integration” session, is usually the final session in the series. Its primary goal is to integrate the changes and realignments made in the previous sessions, ensuring that the body maintains its new balance and improved functionality. Here are some techniques that might be incorporated:

  1. Movement Assessment: The practitioner will observe your movement patterns to assess how your body has adapted to the changes made in the previous sessions. They may ask you to walk, perform specific movements, or engage in activities related to your concerns or goals.
  2. Structural Integration: The practitioner may use hands-on techniques to further refine and integrate the structural changes made in previous sessions. This may involve working with connective tissues, releasing restrictions, and improving the overall alignment of the body.
  3. Breath and Awareness: Session 10 often includes focusing on the breath and cultivating body awareness. The practitioner may guide you through exercises or movements that help you develop a deeper connection with your body and enhance your ability to maintain the new alignment.
  4. Movement Education: The practitioner may provide you with specific exercises, stretches, or movement cues to support the continued integration of the work done during the Rolfing series. These exercises are often tailored to your individual needs and may aim to improve coordination, stability, and overall body awareness.
  5. Client Education: In this session, the practitioner may also provide you with information and guidance on self-care practices, such as ergonomic adjustments, postural awareness, and movement habits that can help you maintain the benefits achieved through the Rolfing series.



Rolfing, also known as Structural Integration, is a form of bodywork that aims to improve posture, movement, and overall well-being by manipulating the body’s fascia—the connective tissue that surrounds muscles, bones, and organs. Rolfing typically involves a series of ten sessions, known as “the Ten Series,” which are designed to systematically address and reorganize the body’s structure. Here is a general overview of the ten Rolfing treatments:

  1. Session 1: “Opening the Breath” or “Sleeve” – This session focuses on increasing awareness of breath and initiating the process of releasing tension in the ribcage, diaphragm, and torso.
  2. Session 2: “Getting Grounded” or “Foundation” – The goal of this session is to establish a solid foundation by working on the feet, legs, and pelvis. It helps to improve balance, stability, and alignment.
  3. Session 3: “Front Line” or “Sagittal Plane” – This session addresses the front of the body, including the abdomen, thighs, and psoas muscles. It aims to balance the relationship between the front and back of the body.

The sagittal plane is defined as an imaginary plane running from the top to the bottom of the human body which results in the formation of 2 different portions- left and right portions of the body. For easy understanding, you can imagine slicing your body from top to bottom into two halves.



Key Points

  • A coronal or frontal plane divides the body into dorsal and ventral (back and front, or posterior and anterior) portions.
  • A transverse plane, also known as an axial plane or cross-section, divides the body into cranial and caudal (head and tail) portions.
  • A sagittal plane divides the body into sinister and dexter (left and right) portions.
  • Body planes have several uses within the anatomy field, including in medical imaging, descriptions of body motion, and embryology.


Key Terms

  • coronal plane: Any vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior (belly and back) sections.
  • transverse plane: Any plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts, roughly perpendicular to the spine.
  • sagittal plane: Any imaginary plane parallel to the median plane.


What Are Body Planes?











Body planes are hypothetical geometric planes used to divide the body into sections. They are commonly used in both human and zoological anatomy to describe the location or direction of bodily structures. Reference planes are the standard planes used in anatomical terminology and include:

  • The sagittal plane (lateral or Y-Z plane) divides the body into sinister and dexter (left and right) sides. The midsagittal (median) plane is in the midline through the center of the body, and all other sagittal planes are parallel to it.
  • The coronal plane(frontal or Y-X plane) divides the body into dorsal and ventral (back and front) portions. It also separates the anterior and posterior portions.
  • The transverse plane (axial or X-Z plane) divides the body into superior and inferior (head and tail) portions. It is typically a horizontal plane through the center of the body and is parallel to the ground.

While these are the major reference planes of the body, other planes are commonly used in relation to these three. A longitudinal plane is any plane perpendicular to the transverse plane, while parasagittal planes are parallel to the sagittal plane.
The coronal plane, the sagittal plane, and the parasagittal planes are examples of longitudinal

Anatomical Planes in a Human: There are three basic planes in zoological anatomy: sagittal, coronal, and transverse. A human in the anatomical position can be described using a coordinate system with the Z-axis going from front to back, the X-axis going from left to right, and the Y-axis going from up to down.


Applications of Body Planes

Medical imaging techniques such as sonography, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans are one of the primary applications of body planes. By imaging a patient in a standard anatomical position, a radiologist can build an X-Y-Z axis around the patient to apply body planes to the images. The planes can then be used to identify and locate the positions of the patient’s internal organs. Individual organs can also be divided by planes to help identify smaller structures within that organ.

Body planes are used to describe anatomical motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system that the body moves through. An anatomist could model a limb’s range of motion by measuring which planes the limb can move through and how far it is able to travel.

Anatomical change during embryological development is also described and measured with body planes. For example, during human embryonic development, the coronal plane is horizontal but becomes vertical as the embryo develops into a fetus. In comparative embryology, body planes provide a basis for comparing the ways in which different types of organisms develop anatomically within the womb.


What are the 4 main body planes?
Anatomical Planes
  • Coronal Plane or Frontal Plane.
  • Sagittal Plane or Lateral Plane.
  • Axial Plane or Transverse Plane.
  1. Session 4: “Back Line” or “Extension” – This session focuses on the posterior chain, including the back, hips, and legs. It aims to release tension and promote extension and lengthening.
  2. Session 5: “Integration of Breath and Core” – This session works on integrating breath and core support, emphasizing the relationship between the breath, diaphragm, and the muscles of the torso.
  3. Session 6: “Shoulders, Arms, and Neck” or “Superficial Front Line” – This session targets the upper body, addressing the shoulders, arms, neck, and chest. It aims to release tension and improve posture in this area.
  4. Session 7: “Head, Neck, and Jaw” – This session focuses on releasing tension in the head, neck, and jaw, promoting freedom of movement and alignment in the cranial region.
  5. Session 8: “Getting Centered” – This session aims to establish balance and alignment in the body’s midline, addressing the spine, pelvis, and ribs.
  6. Session 9: “Integrating the Side Lines” – This session works on integrating the side of the body, including the waist, hips, ribs, and arms. It helps to promote balance and coordination.
  7. Session 10: “Completion and Integration” – The final session of the series aims to integrate the changes and adjustments made throughout the previous sessions, promoting overall alignment, balance, and well-being.

It’s important to note that while these ten sessions form the traditional Rolfing series, the specific approach and techniques may vary slightly depending on the Rolfing practitioner and the individual needs of the client.

Does Rolfing hurt?

The Dr. Ida Rolf Institute claims that a person receiving Rolfing therapy may feel some discomfort because the technique aims to relieve tension deep within the connective tissue.

However, the organization notes that Rolfing should not hurt or cause additional pain to those with preexisting pain.


Below, we answer some common questions about Rolfing therapy.

Is Rolfing covered by insurance?

Many health insurance companies do not cover Rolfing therapy, although there may be some exceptions.

How much does Rolfing cost?

Rolfing costs vary depending on location, but anecdotal evidence suggests that they usually fall within the range of $100–300 per session.

Can you do Rolfing yourself?

It is not possible for a layperson to try Rolfing themselves at home. However, they can try self-massage. Devices such as massage balls and foam rollers can also release tension in muscles and connective tissue.

A person should always speak with a doctor before trying an alternative or at-home treatment for a medical condition. Massage and myofascial release are not appropriate for all types of musculoskeletal pain.


Rolfing is a type of therapy that involves deep manipulation of the body’s connective tissues. It may help alleviate both muscular and psychological tension to realign and restore balance in the body. The course of therapy involves a series of 10 sessions, each of which has different areas of focus.

Rolfing, also known as Structural Integration, is a form of bodywork that focuses on improving the alignment and functioning of the body through hands-on manipulation of the soft tissues and fascia. The Rolfing Ten-Series is a specific protocol developed by Dr. Ida Rolf, the creator of Rolfing, to address postural imbalances and restore optimal movement patterns. It consists of ten sessions that are designed to systematically reorganize and realign the body.

Each session in the Rolfing Ten-Series focuses on a different aspect of the body’s structure, building upon the progress made in the previous sessions. The goal is to release tension, lengthen shortened tissues, and create better balance and integration throughout the body. The sessions typically last about 60 to 90 minutes each and are spaced at regular intervals, usually one to two weeks apart.

The benefits of the Rolfing Ten-Series can be significant for individuals seeking improvement in posture, movement, and overall well-being. Some potential benefits include:

  1. Improved posture: Rolfing aims to bring the body into better alignment, which can lead to improved posture and a more balanced and centered stance.
  2. Increased flexibility and range of motion: By addressing areas of tension and restricted movement, Rolfing can help increase flexibility and range of motion, allowing for more efficient and comfortable movement.
  3. Enhanced body awareness: Rolfing can help individuals develop a greater sense of body awareness, enabling them to recognize and correct movement patterns that contribute to pain or dysfunction.
  4. Pain relief: Many people report reduced pain and discomfort as a result of Rolfing. By addressing imbalances and releasing tension in the body, Rolfing may alleviate chronic pain conditions and improve overall comfort.
  5. Emotional and psychological well-being: Rolfing is known to have a holistic approach, and clients often report feeling more grounded, relaxed, and emotionally balanced after completing the Ten-Series. The deep touch and manual therapy involved in Rolfing sessions can promote a sense of relaxation and release.

However, it’s important to consider potential risks and limitations associated with the Rolfing Ten-Series:

  1. Temporary discomfort: Some individuals may experience temporary discomfort or soreness during or after Rolfing sessions. This discomfort is usually a result of releasing deep-seated tension and can be alleviated with proper communication and feedback to the practitioner.
  2. Emotional release: Rolfing can sometimes trigger emotional responses as the body releases stored tension and trauma. While this can be therapeutic, it’s important to work with a skilled and experienced practitioner who can provide appropriate support during these moments.
  3. Individual response and expectations: The results of Rolfing can vary from person to person, and individual responses depend on factors such as existing conditions, overall health, and commitment to the process. It’s essential to have realistic expectations and understand that Rolfing may not be a “quick fix” for all issues.
  4. Not suitable for certain conditions: Rolfing may not be recommended for individuals with certain medical conditions, such as acute injuries, severe osteoporosis, or certain connective tissue disorders. It’s crucial to consult with a qualified practitioner and inform them about any pre-existing conditions before beginning the Ten-Series.

As with any bodywork modality, it’s important to choose a certified and experienced Rolfing practitioner who has completed the necessary training and adheres to professional standards. They will have a comprehensive understanding of the body’s structure and function and will be able to tailor the sessions to the individual’s needs and limitations.

Overall, the Rolfing Ten-Series can offer substantial benefits in terms of posture, movement, and well-being. However, it’s essential to approach it as a holistic process and work in collaboration with a skilled practitioner to achieve the best possible outcomes

The Science on Rolfing


Rolfing, also known as Structural Integration, is a form of alternative therapy that focuses on manipulating the body’s soft tissues to bring about structural and postural changes. It was developed by Dr. Ida Rolf in the mid-20th century.

The basic principle of Rolfing is that the body’s structure can be improved by manipulating the fascia, a connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, bones, and organs. Rolfing practitioners believe that imbalances or restrictions in the fascia can lead to postural problems, pain, and limitations in movement.

During a Rolfing session, a practitioner applies deep pressure and uses hands-on manipulation techniques to release tension, realign the body, and improve balance and posture. The goal is to bring the body into a more balanced and efficient alignment, which is believed to enhance overall well-being and movement.

While some anecdotal evidence suggests that Rolfing may provide benefits, the scientific research on Rolfing is limited and has mixed results. Several small-scale studies have been conducted to investigate its effects on various conditions, but the overall quality of the research is relatively low.

One study published in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies in 2015 examined the effects of Rolfing on chronic low back pain. The study found that Rolfing was associated with short-term improvements in pain and disability compared to a control group. However, the study had a small sample size and lacked a long-term follow-up.

Another study published in the same journal in 2017 investigated the effects of Rolfing on balance and mobility in older adults. The researchers found that Rolfing led to significant improvements in balance, mobility, and functional reach compared to a control group. However, this study also had limitations, including small sample size and a lack of long-term follow-up.

Overall, the scientific evidence on Rolfing is limited, and more rigorous research is needed to draw firm conclusions about its effectiveness. It’s important to note that Rolfing should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatment, and individuals with specific medical conditions should consult with their healthcare providers before undergoing Rolfing or any other alternative therapy.



Analyzing anatomical Rolfing massage planes with the Z-axis involves understanding the three-dimensional relationships between the body’s structures and applying specific techniques to address imbalances and restrictions. Here are some systems and techniques that can be used for this purpose:

  1. Structural Integration: Rolfing is a form of Structural Integration that focuses on aligning and balancing the body’s structure. It views the body as a series of interconnected segments and emphasizes the relationships between them. Analyzing the Z-axis involves assessing the vertical dimension and identifying any deviations or restrictions in the body’s alignment.
  2. Postural Assessment: Conducting a thorough postural assessment is crucial in analyzing the Z-axis. It involves observing the individual’s standing, sitting, and walking postures to identify any asymmetries, misalignments, or areas of tension. This assessment helps determine the areas that require attention during the Rolfing session.
HOW DO YOU DO Postural Assessment IN ROLFING?

In Rolfing, postural assessment is an important step in evaluating a client’s posture and movement patterns. It helps the Rolfer identify areas of imbalance, tension, or misalignment in the client’s body. Here are the general steps involved in conducting a postural assessment in Rolfing:

  1. Initial observation: Begin by observing the client’s overall posture from different angles, including the front, back, and sides. Look for any obvious misalignments, asymmetries, or areas of tension.


  1. Plumb line: The plumb line is a vertical reference line used to assess alignment. Ask the client to stand naturally and drop an imaginary line from the earlobe, passing through the center of the shoulder, hip joint, knee joint, and ankle joint. Observe how the client’s body aligns with the plumb line.
  2. Pelvic assessment: Assess the position and alignment of the client’s pelvis. Look for any tilts, rotations, or imbalances in the pelvis. You can observe the position of the iliac crests (the bony prominences on the top of the hips) and the level of the pubic bone.
  3. Spinal curves: Observe the natural curves of the client’s spine. Look for any excessive lordosis (curvature inward) or kyphosis (curvature outward) in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar regions.
  4. Shoulder assessment: Assess the position and alignment of the client’s shoulders. Look for any elevation, protraction (forward movement), or retraction (backward movement) of the shoulders.
  5. Head and neck assessment: Observe the alignment of the client’s head and neck in relation to the rest of the body. Look for any forward head posture, rotation, or lateral tilts.
  6. Joint mobility: Assess the client’s joint mobility by performing range-of-motion tests for major joints like the shoulders, hips, knees, and ankles. Check for any restrictions or limitations in movement.
  7. Functional movement patterns: Observe the client’s movement patterns during functional activities like walking, squatting, bending, or reaching. Look for any compensatory movements, imbalances, or asymmetries.

Throughout the assessment, it’s important to communicate with the client and gather information about their medical history, lifestyle, and any specific concerns they may have. This holistic approach helps Rolfer develop a personalized treatment plan to address the client’s unique needs and goals.

  1. Movement Analysis: Evaluating movement patterns and quality can provide insights into how the body functions in different planes of motion. By assessing movement in the Z-axis, Rolfers can identify any limitations, compensations, or inefficient movement patterns. This information guides the development of a targeted treatment plan.
  2. Fascial Analysis: Rolfing recognizes the importance of fascia, the connective tissue that surrounds and interpenetrates all structures of the body. The fascial analysis involves palpating and assessing the quality and tension of the fascial system. This includes observing restrictions, adhesions, and areas of limited mobility in the Z-axis.
  3. Manual Techniques: Rolfing employs a variety of manual techniques to release tension, realign structures, and restore balance in the body. These techniques can be specifically adapted to address the Z-axis. For example, the Rolfer may use deep tissue manipulation, myofascial release, or other specialized techniques to address the vertical dimension of the body and promote optimal alignment.
  4. Movement Education: Rolfing also incorporates movement education to help clients integrate the changes achieved during the session into their daily lives. This may involve teaching specific exercises, movement patterns, or postural awareness techniques that target the Z-axis and encourage balanced movement and alignment.

Overall, analyzing anatomical Rolfing massage planes with the Z-axis requires a holistic approach that considers the body’s structure, postural alignment, movement patterns, fascial system, and the application of manual techniques. By addressing imbalances in the Z-axis, Rolfing aims to improve overall body function and promote optimal health and well-being.

In Rolfing how do they analyze gait analysis in humans?


In Rolfing, gait analysis is used to assess how a person walks and moves. It involves observing and analyzing various aspects of a person’s gait pattern, such as the alignment, posture, movement, and coordination of the body during walking. This analysis helps Rolfers identify any imbalances, asymmetries, or restrictions in the individual’s movement patterns.

To perform gait analysis in Rolfing, the Rolfer typically follows these steps:

  1. Observation: The Rolfer observes the client’s gait by watching them walk in a natural and relaxed manner. They pay attention to the client’s posture, alignment, and movements from different angles.
  2. Body Segments: The Rolfer assesses the movement of different body segments during gait. They observe how the head, shoulders, arms, torso, hips, legs, and feet move in relation to each other and identify any abnormalities or compensations.
  3. Weight Shift: The Rolfer observes how the weight is distributed between the feet during walking. They look for any excessive pronation or supination (inward or outward rolling) of the feet and assess the balance and symmetry of weight transfer.
  4. Joint Movement: The Rolfer pays attention to the movement of major joints, such as the ankles, knees, hips, and spine, during each phase of the gait cycle. They assess the range of motion, joint alignment, and any restrictions or excessive movements.
  5. Muscle Activation: The Rolfer evaluates the activation and coordination of muscles during gait. They look for any muscle imbalances, weaknesses, or compensatory patterns that may affect the client’s gait mechanics.
  6. Symmetry and Balance: The Rolfer compares the movement and alignment of the left and right sides of the body to assess symmetry. They also evaluate balance and stability during walking.

Based on the gait analysis, Rolfers can identify areas of the body that may be contributing to imbalances, postural issues, or movement restrictions. This information guides them in developing an individualized Rolfing treatment plan to address these concerns and improve the client’s overall movement patterns and body alignment.



In-depth the science of Myers’s ‘Anatomy Trains Myofascial and Meridians


Anatomy Trains is a concept developed by Thomas Myers, a bodyworker and anatomist, that seeks to understand the interconnectedness of the human body through myofascial and meridian lines. This concept proposes that the body’s connective tissue, known as fascia, plays a significant role in maintaining structural integrity and facilitating functional movement. In Myers’s approach, the body is viewed as a dynamic, interconnected system, rather than a collection of isolated parts.

Myofascial Lines: Myers’s Anatomy Trains theory proposes the existence of specific myofascial lines or chains that link different muscles and fascial structures throughout the body. These lines provide a framework for understanding how tension and movement are transmitted between various body regions. There are several primary myofascial lines identified in the Anatomy Trains system:

1. Superficial Back Line (SBL): The SBL runs along the posterior surface of the body from the plantar fascia (soles of the feet) to the skull. It includes muscles like the gastrocnemius, hamstrings, erector spinae, and the muscles along the nuchal ligament. SBL creates trunk hyperextension, knee flexion, and plantar flexion. It runs from your toes, under your feet, up the back of your legs, back, neck, and over your head, to the frontal brow ridge (eyebrows) The sit-to-reach test is a good way to see how tight you are through SBL. By releasing any of the fascia and muscles along this line can improve function, and flexibility and decrease injury. If this area is weak and your SFL is tight, strength exercises for these muscles will be beneficial to you.



2. Superficial Front Line (SFL): The SFL follows the anterior surface of the body from the top of the toes to the skull. It includes muscles such as the tibialis anterior, quadriceps, rectus abdominis, and sternocleidomastoid. this fascia line connects to the body anteriorly from the top of the feet to the skull in 2 pieces and is responsible to balance out the SBL. It creates flexion of the trunk, flexion of the hips, extension of the knee & Dorsi flexion of the foot. There needs to be a balance of the SBL & SFL for the body to be in equilibrium. As for SBL, stretching and releasing the front line will create balance. If it is weak, using exercises using the muscles involved in SFL can strengthen it. Laying prone (on your stomach) and pushing your chest off the ground into upward facing dog is s a good way to test how tight your SFL is.




























3. Lateral Line (LL): The LL extends along the sides of the body from the feet to the head. It includes muscles like the peroneals, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus medius, and the lateral structures of the neck. The lateral line traverses each side of the body from the outside of the foot, up the lateral side of the leg and thigh, passing along the trunk to the skull. It literally bends the body (sideways), truck lateral flexion, abduction of the hip, eversion of the foot & braking sideways & rotational movements of the trunk. Since the muscles of the LL cause lateral flexion, any restrictions in the Myofascia or muscle tension will cause postural abnormalities involving lateral flexion. A side reach in standing is a good way to test your LL flexibility. LL is used often in things like golf.












4. Spiral Line (SL): The SL spirals around the body in a double helix pattern, connecting the opposite shoulder and hip. It includes muscles such as the latissimus dorsi, obliques, and deep spinal rotators. The spiral line loops around the body in s helix. It joins one side of the skull to the opposite shoulder then to the front of that hip, knee, and foot arch, and runs up the back of the body to rejoin the fascia on the skull. The Rhomboid, serratus anterior, and hips are in the SL, and baseball & cricket bowling have common movements of the SL. Opposition knee-to-elbow extensions from the tabletop are a good way to see if you are weak through your SL, side reaching and rotation are a good way to test tightness with the opposite leg-to-arm stretching away from each other.












5. Deep Front Line (DFL): The DFL runs through the core of the body, linking the deep muscles of the pelvic floor to the diaphragm and the muscles of the throat. It includes muscles like the psoas major, iliacus, and intercostals. This involves all of the internal structures anterior to the spine. Organs and body structures that it surrounds include: the anterior longitudinal ligament diaphragm, pericardium, and scale bed (neck) these all connect the lumbar spine vertebral bodies to the cervical spine.

This line is way too deep to release with a foam roller. To affect this line, optimal head posture &  spinal posture is essential. Breathing techniques are also an essential component of this train. The scalenes in the neck that pull the head forward when tight, can be released by a qualified massage therapist. If your posture is poor, this is a good indicator your front line is also affected.

















Meridians: In addition to myofascial lines, Myers incorporates the concept of meridians into his Anatomy Trains model. Meridians are channels of energy flow according to traditional Chinese medicine and are commonly associated with acupuncture and acupressure. In the Anatomy Trains system, the meridians are seen as pathways along which fascial tension and energy move. They are not limited to the traditional Chinese meridian system but are more closely related to the myofascial chains described above.

Integration and Function: The Anatomy Trains concept emphasizes the importance of understanding the interplay between different myofascial lines and meridians in maintaining functional movement and overall well-being. By considering the body as a holistic system rather than focusing on isolated muscles or joints, practitioners can identify and address patterns of imbalance, restriction, or compensation that may affect the body’s overall structure and function.

Practical Applications: The Anatomy Trains approach has gained popularity among bodyworkers, movement therapists, and manual therapists as a framework for assessment, treatment, and movement training. Practitioners trained in this approach can use the knowledge of myofascial lines and meridians to guide their interventions and create targeted treatment plans. This may involve techniques such as myofascial release, stretching, movement re-education, or exercises aimed at rebalancing the myofascial and meridian systems.

Woman with body meridians and their names – front and back view – black background.












It is important to note that while the Anatomy Trains concept has gained recognition and influenced various therapeutic practices, its scientific basis is still a topic.


The science of fibroblast cells and how they relate to the fascia





Fibroblast cells are a crucial component of the connective tissue found throughout the body, including the fascia. The fascia is a dense, fibrous network of connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, organs, and other structures. Fibroblasts play a central role in the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of the fascia.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells responsible for the synthesis and organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component of the connective tissue. The ECM is composed of various proteins, such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans, which provide structural integrity, elasticity, and support to the tissue.

The primary function of fibroblasts is to produce and secrete these ECM components. They synthesize collagen, the most abundant protein in the body, which forms strong fibers that provide tensile strength to the fascia. Additionally, fibroblasts produce elastin, a protein that imparts elasticity to the fascia, allowing it to stretch and recoil. Proteoglycans are another important component of the ECM produced by fibroblasts. They form a gel-like substance that provides hydration and lubrication to the fascia.

In addition to ECM synthesis, fibroblasts are also involved in tissue repair and wound healing. When an injury occurs, fibroblasts migrate to the site of the injury and proliferate. They secrete ECM components to form a provisional matrix, which acts as a scaffold for the migration and proliferation of other cells involved in the healing process. Over time, fibroblasts remodel the ECM, replacing the provisional matrix with more mature and organized tissue.

Fibroblasts also play a role in maintaining the homeostasis of the fascia. They continuously monitor the mechanical forces acting on the tissue and respond by modulating ECM synthesis and remodeling. For example, in response to increased mechanical tension, fibroblasts can increase collagen production, leading to tissue reinforcement. On the other hand, decreased mechanical loading can result in reduced collagen synthesis and tissue degradation.

The interaction between fibroblasts and the fascia is bidirectional. The fascia provides a mechanical and biochemical environment that influences fibroblast behavior, while fibroblasts, through ECM synthesis and remodeling, contribute to the structural and functional properties of the fascia.

In summary, fibroblast cells are essential for maintaining the structural integrity, elasticity, and repair of the fascia. Their ability to synthesize and remodel the ECM ensures the strength and flexibility of the fascial tissue, allowing it to support and protect various structures in the body.

The Science of Tensegrity Applied to Human Biomechanics and Bodywork

Tensegrity is a design principle that applies when a discontinuous set of compression elements is opposed and balanced by a continuous tensile force, thereby creating an internal prestress that stabilizes the entire structure.



The application of tensegrity to human biomechanics and bodywork involves understanding and exploring the mechanical properties and behavior of the human body as a tensegrity system. Here are some key aspects of the science behind tensegrity applied to human biomechanics and bodywork:

Tensegrity is the characteristic property of a stable three-dimensional structure consisting of members under tension that are contiguous and members under compression that are not.

  1. Structural Integration: Tensegrity models propose that the body is a dynamic structure composed of interconnected tension and compression elements. In this view, the bones act as struts under compression, and the muscles, fascia, and other soft tissues act as tension elements. Bodywork techniques, such as structural integration or Rolfing, aim to optimize the body’s structural alignment and balance by releasing restrictions and improving the tensional relationships within the system.
  2. Dynamic Stability: Tensegrity provides a framework for understanding how the body maintains stability and balance during movement. Rather than relying solely on rigid joints and isolated muscles, tensegrity emphasizes the continuous distribution of forces and tensions throughout the body. It suggests that changes in tension in one part of the body can affect the entire system, allowing for efficient movement and stability.
  3. Fascial Network: Fascia, a connective tissue that envelops and interconnects muscles, organs, and other structures, plays a crucial role in tensegrity-based biomechanics. Fascia acts as a continuous tensional network, transmitting forces and tensions throughout the body. Bodywork techniques that target the fascial system, such as myofascial release or fascial stretching, aim to optimize its function, enhance mobility, and promote overall body alignment.
  4. Movement Efficiency: Tensegrity principles suggest that movement efficiency arises from the balanced interaction of tension and compression forces within the body. By optimizing the tensegrity relationships, bodywork practitioners aim to reduce mechanical stress on specific joints or tissues and enhance the body’s ability to distribute loads effectively during movement. This can lead to improved performance, reduced risk of injuries, and enhanced overall movement quality.
  5. Whole-Body Approach: Tensegrity applied to human biomechanics emphasizes the interconnectedness of various body systems. Rather than focusing solely on specific muscles or joints, it encourages a whole-body approach to assessment and treatment. Bodywork practitioners trained in tensegrity-based approaches consider the body as an integrated system and address global patterns of tension and imbalance, aiming to restore overall body function and harmony.

It’s important to note that while the concept of tensegrity offers valuable insights into human biomechanics and bodywork, its application is still a subject of ongoing research and debate within the scientific community. Nonetheless, it provides a valuable framework for understanding the interconnected nature of the human body and its potential implications for bodywork and movement practices.

The science of Human Biomechanics and bodywork

Human biomechanics is the study of the mechanical principles that govern the structure, function, and movement of the human body. It encompasses various disciplines such as physiology, anatomy, physics, and engineering to understand how forces and loads affect the body and its components. Bodywork, on the other hand, refers to therapeutic techniques and practices that manipulate the body’s soft tissues to enhance function, alleviate pain, and promote well-being.

The field of human biomechanics explores the mechanical properties of bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other tissues to understand their roles in movement and stability. It investigates how forces are generated, transmitted, and absorbed within the body during activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting. Biomechanics also examines how external factors like footwear, equipment, and environmental conditions influence human performance and injury risk.

Bodywork techniques aim to optimize the function and structure of the body’s soft tissues. Practitioners utilize various methods, including massage therapy, manual therapy, stretching, and movement retraining, to address musculoskeletal imbalances, reduce pain, improve flexibility, and enhance overall well-being. Bodywork approaches can target specific areas or take a whole-body approach, depending on the individual’s needs and goals.

The science of human biomechanics and bodywork intersect in several ways. Biomechanics research provides a foundation for understanding how bodywork techniques influence the body’s mechanical properties. By investigating the effects of specific interventions, scientists can gain insights into the physiological and mechanical changes that occur within tissues. This knowledge can help refine bodywork approaches and optimize their effectiveness.

Furthermore, biomechanical analysis can aid in identifying movement patterns or imbalances that contribute to pain or dysfunction. Bodywork practitioners can use this information to develop targeted treatment plans that address the underlying biomechanical issues and restore optimal movement and function.

Additionally, biomechanics can provide valuable insights into injury prevention and rehabilitation. By understanding the forces and loads that contribute to injury, researchers and practitioners can develop strategies to mitigate risk factors and enhance recovery. Bodywork techniques can play a vital role in injury rehabilitation by promoting tissue healing, reducing inflammation, and restoring normal movement patterns.

Overall, the science of human biomechanics provides a framework for understanding the mechanical aspects of the human body, while bodywork techniques offer practical approaches to optimize its function. By combining these disciplines, researchers, and practitioners can contribute to improving human performance, preventing injuries, and promoting well-being.

The in-depth the science of neural plasticity in bodywork


Neural plasticity, also known as brain plasticity or neuroplasticity, refers to the brain’s ability to adapt and change throughout an individual’s life. It is a fundamental property of the nervous system that allows it to reorganize its structure, function, and connections in response to various stimuli and experiences. Bodywork, which encompasses a range of therapeutic approaches such as massage, chiropractic adjustments, and physical therapy, can have a significant impact on neural plasticity.

Neural plasticity occurs at various levels within the nervous system, from the molecular and cellular levels to the larger-scale changes in neural networks. Here are some key mechanisms and processes involved in neural plasticity:

  1. Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses are the connections between neurons that allow the transmission of electrical and chemical signals. Synaptic plasticity refers to the ability of these connections to change in strength and efficiency. There are two main types of synaptic plasticity: long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). LTP strengthens synaptic connections, while LTD weakens them. Bodywork interventions can modulate synaptic plasticity by influencing neurotransmitter release, receptor activation, and signaling pathways.
  2. Structural Plasticity: Structural plasticity involves changes in the physical structure of neurons and their connections. This includes the growth of new dendritic spines (small protrusions on the surface of neurons) and the formation of new synapses. Bodywork techniques that involve physical manipulation, such as massage or adjustments, can stimulate structural plasticity by promoting the growth and remodeling of neural connections.
  3. Neurogenesis: Neurogenesis refers to the generation of new neurons in the brain. While it was traditionally believed that neurogenesis only occurred during embryonic development, recent research has shown that adult neurogenesis takes place in certain brain regions, such as the hippocampus. Physical activity and environmental enrichment, both of which can be facilitated by bodywork practices, have been found to enhance neurogenesis.
  4. Cortical Reorganization: Sensory and motor experiences can lead to cortical reorganization, which involves the remapping of brain regions responsible for specific functions. For example, in individuals who have experienced amputation, the somatosensory and motor areas representing the missing limb may reorganize to process input from adjacent body parts. Bodywork interventions, such as mirror therapy or tactile stimulation, can help promote cortical reorganization and facilitate recovery in individuals with neurologic conditions.
  5. Modulation of Neurotransmitters: Bodywork can influence the release and availability of various neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin, and endorphins. These neurotransmitters play crucial roles in neural plasticity by regulating synaptic strength, neuronal excitability, and neurotrophic factor production. For instance, massage therapy has been shown to increase serotonin and dopamine levels, which can promote a positive mood and facilitate neural plasticity.

It is important to note that the scientific understanding of neural plasticity is still evolving, and further research is needed to explore the specific mechanisms through which bodywork interventions influence neural plasticity. However, existing evidence suggests that bodywork practices can promote neural adaptation and facilitate recovery in various neurological conditions, including stroke, chronic pain, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

In summary, the science of neural plasticity in bodywork involves the modulation of synaptic plasticity, structural plasticity, neurogenesis, cortical reorganization, and neurotransmitter dynamics. By understanding and harnessing the principles of neural plasticity, bodywork practitioners can tailor their interventions to optimize neuroplastic changes, promote recovery, and enhance overall well-being.

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Therapeutic Deep Tissue, Swedish Massage, Sports Injury Massage Therapy in Santa Barbara, Goleta, Ca.

*Disclaimer: This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare provider. Please consult your healthcare provider with any questions or concerns you may have regarding your condition. The information provided is for educational purposes only and is not intended as a diagnosis, treatment, or prescription of any kind. The decision to use, or not to use, any information is the sole responsibility of the reader. These statements are not expressions of legal opinion relative to the scope of practice, medical diagnosis, or medical advice, nor do they represent an endorsement of any product, company, or specific massage therapy technique, modality, or approach. All trademarks, registered trademarks, brand names, registered brand names, logos, and company logos referenced in this post are the property of their owners.

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