Massage for Down Syndrome

A congenital condition characterized by a distinctive pattern of physical characteristics including a flattened skull, pronounced folds of skin in the inner corners of the eyes, large tongue, and short stature, and by some degree of limitation of intellectual ability and social and practical skills. It usually arises from a defect involving chromosome 21, usually an extra copy (trisomy-21).

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused when abnormal cell division results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material causes the developmental changes and physical features of Down syndrome.

Down syndrome varies in severity among individuals, causing lifelong intellectual disability and developmental delays. It’s the most common genetic chromosomal disorder and cause of learning disabilities in children. It also commonly causes other medical abnormalities, including heart and gastrointestinal disorders.

A better understanding of Down syndrome and early interventions can greatly increase the quality of life for children and adults with this disorder and help them live to fulfill live.

Symptoms

Each person with Down syndrome is an individual — intellectual and developmental problems may be mild, moderate or severe. Some people are healthy while others have significant health problems such as serious heart defects.

Children and adults with Down syndrome have distinct facial features. Though not all people with Down syndrome have the same features, some of the more common features include:

  • Flattened face
  • Small head
  • Short neck
  • Protruding tongue
  • Upward slanting eyelids (palpebral fissures)
  • Unusually shaped or small ears
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Broad, short hands with a single crease in the palm
  • Relatively short fingers and small hands and feet
  • Excessive flexibility
  • Tiny white spots on the colored part (iris) of the eye called Brushfield’s spots
  • Short height

Infants with Down syndrome may be average size, but typically they grow slowly and remain shorter than other children the same age.

Intellectual disabilities

Most children with Down syndrome have mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Language is delayed, and both short and long-term memory is affected.

When to see a doctor

Children with Down syndrome usually are diagnosed before or at birth. However, if you have any questions regarding your pregnancy or your child’s growth and development, talk with your doctor.

Causes

Human cells normally contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. One chromosome in each pair comes from your father, the other from your mother.

Down syndrome results when abnormal cell division involving chromosome 21 occurs. These cell division abnormalities result in an extra partial or full chromosome 21. This extra genetic material is responsible for the characteristic features and developmental problems of Down syndrome. Any one of three genetic variations can cause Down syndrome:

  • Trisomy 21. About 95 percent of the time, Down syndrome is caused by trisomy 21 — the person has three copies of chromosome 21, instead of the usual two copies, in all cells. This is caused by abnormal cell division during the development of the sperm cell or the egg cell.
  • Mosaic Down syndrome. In this rare form of Down syndrome, a person has only some cells with an extra copy of chromosome 21. This mosaic of normal and abnormal cells is caused by abnormal cell division after fertilization.
  • Translocation Down syndrome. Down syndrome can also occur when a portion of chromosome 21 becomes attached (translocated) onto another chromosome, before or at conception. These children have the usual two copies of chromosome 21, but they also have additional genetic material from chromosome 21 attached to another chromosome.

There are no known behavioral or environmental factors that cause Down syndrome.

Is it inherited?

Most of the time, Down syndrome isn’t inherited. It’s caused by a mistake in cell division during the early development of the fetus.

Translocation Down syndrome can be passed from parent to child. However, only about 3 to 4 percent of children with Down syndrome have translocation and only some of them inherited it from one of their parents.

When balanced translocations are inherited, the mother or father has some rearranged genetic material from chromosome 21 on another chromosome, but no extra genetic material. This means he or she has no signs or symptoms of Down syndrome, but can pass an unbalanced translocation on to children, causing Down syndrome in the children.

Risk factors

Some parents have a greater risk of having a baby with Down syndrome. Risk factors include:

  • Advancing maternal age. A woman’s chances of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome increase with age because older eggs have a greater risk of improper chromosome division. A woman’s risk of conceiving a child with Down syndrome increases after 35 years of age. However, most children with Down syndrome are born to women under age 35 because younger women have far more babies.
  • Being carriers of the genetic translocation for Down syndrome. Both men and women can pass the genetic translocation for Down syndrome on to their children.
  • Having had one child with Down syndrome. Parents who have one child with Down syndrome and parents who have a translocation themselves are at an increased risk of having another child with Down syndrome. A genetic counselor can help parents assess the risk of having a second child with Down syndrome.

Complications

People with Down syndrome can have a variety of complications, some of which become more prominent as they get older. These complications can include:

  • Heart defects. About half the children with Down syndrome are born with some type of congenital heart defect. These heart problems can be life-threatening and may require surgery in early infancy.
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) defects. GI abnormalities occur in some children with Down syndrome and may include abnormalities of the intestines, esophagus, trachea, and anus. The risk of developing digestive problems, such as GI blockage, heartburn (gastroesophageal reflux) or celiac disease, may be increased.
  • Immune disorders. Because of abnormalities in their immune systems, people with Down syndrome are at increased risk of developing autoimmune disorders, some forms of cancer, and infectious diseases, such as pneumonia.
  • Sleep apnea. Because of soft tissue and skeletal changes that lead to the obstruction of their airways, children and adults with Down syndrome are at greater risk of obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Obesity. People with Down syndrome have a greater tendency to be obese compared with the general population.
  • Spinal problems. Some people with Down syndrome may have a misalignment of the top two vertebrae in the neck (atlantoaxial instability). This condition puts them at risk of serious injury to the spinal cord from overextension of the neck.
  • Leukemia. Young children with Down syndrome have an increased risk of leukemia.
  • Dementia. People with Down syndrome have a greatly increased risk of dementia — signs, and symptoms may begin around age 50. Having Down syndrome also increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Other problems. Down syndrome may also be associated with other health conditions, including endocrine problems, dental problems, seizures, ear infections, and hearing and vision problems.

For people with Down syndrome, getting routine medical care and treating issues when needed can help with maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

Life expectancy

Life spans have increased dramatically for people with Down syndrome. Today, someone with Down syndrome can expect to live more than 60 years, depending on the severity of health problems.

Prevention

There’s no way to prevent Down syndrome. If you’re at high risk of having a child with Down syndrome or you already have one child with Down syndrome, you may want to consult a genetic counselor before becoming pregnant.

A genetic counselor can help you understand your chances of having a child with Down syndrome. He or she can also explain the prenatal tests that are available and help explain the pros and cons of testing.

What is Down syndrome’s simple definition?
Down syndrome is a condition in which a person has an extra chromosome. Chromosomes are small “packages” of genes in the body. They determine how a baby’s body forms and functions as it grows during pregnancy and after birth. Typically, a baby is born with 46 chromosomes.
What are the 3 types of Down syndrome?
  • Trisomy 21. This is by far the most common type, where every cell in the body has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of two.
  • Translocation Down syndrome. In this type, each cell has part of an extra chromosome 21, or an entirely extra one. …
  • Mosaic Down syndrome.
What is the medical definition of Down syndrome?
Listen to pronunciation. (…SIN-drome) A genetic condition caused by having an extra chromosome 21 in some or all of the body’s cells. Down syndrome is marked by growth, developmental, and learning delays that vary from mild to severe.
Can a Down syndrome child look normal?
Some of the children with Mosaic Down syndrome that we know do not actually look as if they have Down syndrome – the usual physical features are not obvious. This raises some important and difficult social issues and identity issues for both parents and children, which parents have discussed with us.
Can Down syndrome be prevented?
There’s no way to prevent Down syndrome. If you’re at high risk of having a child with Down syndrome or you already have one child with Down syndrome, you may want to consult a genetic counselor before becoming pregnant. A genetic counselor can help you understand your chances of having a child with Down syndrome.
Can you look normal and have Down syndrome?
Misconception: People with Down syndrome all look alike.

For example, many but not all people with Down syndrome have almond-shaped eyes and short stature. However, like typical people who share similar features, they look more like their families than each other.
Why is Down syndrome not curable?
Because Down syndrome is the result of a genetic anomaly, a cure is not possible at this time. While stories occasionally pop up about alleged gene therapy providing a cure, research is typically focused on addressing specific health concerns associated with Down syndrome.
Is Down syndrome a disability?
The extra chromosome affects the way the child’s brain and body develop, leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability, and an increased risk for certain medical issues. Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, affecting approximately 1 in every 700 children.
Do Down syndrome babies cry?
Children with Down syndrome are children, above all else. As babies, they cry and sleep, and as they grow they walk and talk. If you’re caring for a child with Down syndrome, you might face some challenges different from other parents.
How is Down syndrome detected?
Amniocentesis, a prenatal diagnosis method in which a needle is inserted into the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus. Amniocentesis is most often used to detect Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities. This test is usually done in the second trimester, after 15 weeks of gestation.
At what age does Down syndrome occur?
It is determined by many factors, but research suggests that there is a higher chance if the mother is older than 35 years of age. Before the age of 30, Down syndrome occurs in fewer than 1 in 1,000 pregnancies. After the age of 40, this figure rises to about 12 in 1,000.
Can stress cause Down syndrome?
Down syndrome, which arises from a chromosome defect, is likely to have a direct link with the increase in stress levels seen in couples during the time of conception, say, Surekha Ramachandran, founder of Down Syndrome Federation of India, who has been studying the same ever since her daughter was diagnosed with …
Does Down syndrome run in family?
Does Down Syndrome Run in Families? All 3 types of Down syndrome are genetic conditions (relating to the genes), but only 1% of all cases of Down syndrome have a hereditary component (passed from parent to child through the genes). Heredity is not a factor in trisomy 21 (nondisjunction) and mosaicism.
Why do Down syndrome babies stick their tongues out?
Some babies have decreased muscle tone. Since the tongue is a muscle and is controlled by other muscles in the mouth, decreased muscle tone can cause the tongue to stick out more than usual. Several conditions may cause decreased muscle tone, such as Down syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, and cerebral palsy.
Can two down syndromes have a normal baby?
Women with Down syndrome are able to have children, but many men with the condition, unfortunately, are not able to, however, it is possible. Women who have Down syndrome are able to have children; they have a 35-50% chance that their baby will have Down syndrome.
Is Down syndrome reversible?
Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include speech, physical, occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many people with Down syndrome live happy, productive lives.
Why is Down syndrome so common?
The number of babies born in the United States each year affected with Down syndrome is the result of several factors, including the number of fetuses conceived that carry the third copy of chromosome 21 (older mothers are more likely to conceive Down syndrome-affected fetuses, and the childbearing population in the …
What are the behaviors of Down syndrome?
The most common mental health concerns include general anxiety, repetitive and obsessive-compulsive behaviors; oppositional, impulsive, and inattentive behaviors; sleep-related difficulties; depression; autism spectrum conditions; and neuropsychological problems characterized by progressive loss of cognitive skills.
Is Down syndrome obvious at birth?
Down syndrome is usually quite evident as soon as a baby with the disorder is born, as many of its distinctive physical characteristics are present at birth.
Can a puppy have Down syndrome?
Simply put, the answer is no. The condition of Down syndrome has not been described in dogs. Three explanations are possible: These types of chromosomal abnormalities typically lead to early death in dogs.
What is an interesting fact about Down syndrome?
One in every 691 babies in the U.S. is born with Down syndrome, making it the most common chromosomal condition. There are more than 400,000 people living with Down syndrome in the U.S. In 1983, the average life expectancy of a person with Down syndrome was a mere 25-years-old. Today, it’s 60.
What are the signs of Down syndrome during pregnancy?
Some common physical signs of Down syndrome include:
  • Flat face with an upward slant to the eyes.
  • Short neck.
  • Abnormally shaped or small ears.
  • Protruding tongue.
  • Small head.
  • Deep crease in the palm of the hand with relatively short fingers.
  • White spots in the iris of the eye.
Can Down syndrome be cured during pregnancy?
The extra chromosome can’t be removed from cells, so there’s no cure for the condition. The chromosomes divide incorrectly by accident, not because of anything the parents have done. Although the chance of having a child with Down syndrome increases with the age of the mother, anyone can have a baby with Down syndrome.
Can you tell if a baby has Down syndrome in an ultrasound?
An ultrasound can detect fluid at the back of a fetus’s neck, which sometimes indicates Down syndrome. The ultrasound test is called the measurement of nuchal translucency. During the first trimester, this combined method results in more effective or comparable detection rates than methods used during the second trimester.
Can people with Down syndrome drive?
Many people with Down Syndrome lead independent lives, this includes being able to drive. If a person with Down syndrome can read and pass a driver’s education class and pass a road test, then they can get a driver’s license. Each case is independent and must be evaluated.
Down syndrome varies in severity, so developmental problems range from moderate to serious. Down syndrome is the most common genetic cause of learning disabilities in children. Increased understanding of Down syndrome and early interventions make a big difference in the lives of both children and adults with Down syndrome.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benefits of Massage for Down Syndrome

For Children with Down Syndrome, studies show that massage is able to increase muscle tone, promote more on-task-related skills, and provide relief from constipation, and aid in body awareness. Massage therapy can also benefit people with other neurological disorders or neurodegenerative disorders.

What are the 3 benefits of massage?
Some of the physical benefits of massage and myotherapy include:
  • reduced muscle tension.
  • improved circulation.
  • stimulation of the lymphatic system.
  • reduction of stress hormones.
  • relaxation.
  • increased joint mobility and flexibility.
  • improved skin tone.
  • improved recovery of soft tissue injuries.
more info at:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/down-syndrome/multimedia/the-genetic-basis-of-down-syndrome/img-20007912

https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/10247/down-syndrome

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Down_syndrome

https://www.massagetoday.com/articles/15094/Pediatric-Massage-Benefits-for-Down-Syndrome

Massage May Enhance Motor Development in Children with Down Syndrome

 

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