continues from Low T Post 1
BPC–157 is a peptide that is a partial sequence of body protection compounds that is derived from human gastric juice. Research shows that BPC–157 heightens the healing of many different types of tissue from the tendon, muscle, and nervous system.
Therapeutically, the synthetically produced peptide BPC-157 is not currently approved for use as a human drug. It is an experimental compound that has been investigated for inflammatory bowel disease and soft tissue healing, although there is a concerning lack of published clinical trial data because studies appear to have been canceled or stopped without any published conclusion.
Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is an anti-ulcer peptidergic agent, proven in clinical trials to be both safe in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-10, PLD-116, PL 14736) and wound healing, stable in human gastric juice, with no toxicity being reported
Subcutaneously – BPC 157 subcutaneous injections are easy to administer at home or in the office. The needle goes below your skin, and it doesn’t reach deep. That’s why this is a more pain-free method and can be used to treat muscle, tendon, and ligament injuries.
As a result, BPC-157 offers a wide variety of benefits, including Alleviates aches, pain, and arthritis. Promotes tissue healing and lean tissue repair. Often prescribed to help protect active individuals from injuries and accelerate the overall healing process.
- CJC 1295 and Ipamorelin. Aging causes us to lose vital growth hormone creation capabilities. …
- Follistatin 344. On the science side of things, Follistatin 344 works as a defense against uncontrolled cell production and differentiation. …
- IGF 1. …
- IGF DES. …
TB–500 is a synthetic peptide of the naturally occurring healing protein present in about all human and mammalian cells known as Thymosin Beta 4 (TB4). TB 500 is thought to have beneficial effects on wound healing, injury recovery, flexibility, and inflammation. BPC-157 is a peptide that is a partial sequence of body protection compounds that is derived from human gastric juice. Research shows that BPC-157 heightens the healing of many different types of tissue from the tendon, muscle, and nervous system.
Thymosin Beta-4 is a 43 amino acid peptide sequence. In animal models, Thymosin Beta-4 has been shown to improve blood vessel growth, regulate wound healing, decrease inflammation, and reduce oxidative damage in the heart and central nervous system. Thymosin-beta-4 has a role in the protection, tissue repair, regeneration, and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. It is also of active interest in anti-aging research.
Myofibrillar hypertrophy is essentially muscle fiber growth. A myofibril is the contractile portion of a muscle fiber. Without myofibrils, our muscles could not move. When myofibrillar hypertrophy takes place, the number of myofibrils in a muscle increases, which in turn increases the muscle fiber density and strength.
Yixin Anavar –
GENERIC NAME(S): OXANDROLONE – brand names Oxandrin. Oxandrolone is classified as a controlled substance under the Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 and has been assigned to Schedule III.
This medication is used to help people regain the weight they have lost due to certain medical conditions (such as surgery, chronic infection, trauma, long-term use of corticosteroid medication such as hydrocortisone/prednisone). It is also used to relieve bone pain due to bone loss (osteoporosis). Oxandrolone belongs to a class of drugs known as anabolic steroids. These drugs are similar to male hormones made by the body. Take this medication by mouth usually 2 to 4 times daily or as directed by your doctor.
Oxandrolone, sold under the brand names Oxandrin and Anavar, among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication that is used to help promote weight gain in various situations, to help offset protein catabolism caused by long-term corticosteroid therapy, to support recovery from severe burns, to treat bone pain associated with osteoporosis, to aid in the development of girls with Turner syndrome, and for other indications. It is taken by mouth.
Side effects of oxandrolone include symptoms of masculinization such as acne, increased hair growth, voice changes, and increased sexual desire. The drug is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid, hence is an agonist of the androgen receptor (AR), the biological target of androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. It has strong anabolic effects and weak androgenic effects, which give it a mild side effect profile and make it especially suitable for use in women.
Oxandrolone was first described in 1962 and was introduced for medical use in 1964. It is used mostly in the United States. In addition to its medical use, oxandrolone is used to improve physique and performance. The drug is a controlled substance in many countries, so nonmedical use is generally illicit.
Many bodybuilders and athletes use oxandrolone for its muscle-building effects. It is much more anabolic than androgenic, so women and those seeking less intense steroid regimens use it particularly often. Many also value oxandrolone’s low hepatotoxicity relative to most other orally active AAS.
Powerlifters have also been known to take oxandrolone, due to its ability to significantly increase muscular strength.
Specifically, Anvarol may form a stack with the following supplements:
What is PCT?
Post-cycle therapy (PCT) is employed by steroid users to minimize negative health effects. PCT is seen as important but difficult to access. • PCT may act as a harm reduction measure.
Post-cycle therapy, referred to by many as PCT, is a specific protocol that has to be used after a cycle of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) to recover the users’ hormone levels.
What compounds classify as performance enhancers, you ask? The primary ones are SARMs, prohormones, or androgenic anabolic steroids.
All the PEDs, as mentioned above, will suppress your body’s natural testosterone production once taken. Even if only taken for a short period, they can significantly negatively impact hormone levels.
Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) – What Athletes Need to Know
Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) are a class of therapeutic compounds that have similar anabolic properties to anabolic steroids, but with reduced androgenic (producing male characteristics) properties. As an example, the androgen receptor is activated by binding androgens, such as testosterone. Unlike anabolic steroids, which bind to androgen receptors in many tissues all over the body, individual SARMs selectively bind androgen receptors in certain tissues, but not in others.
In a performance enhancement setting, the minimum recommended dose of Anavar is 50mg/day.
Note that a lot of users start with a much lower dose and bump it up after a couple of weeks.
Some users also start with 100mg/day.
But men can get good results with low doses and there’s no need to increase the dose as it also increases the risk of sides.
Females can get good results with just 10mg/day
Is it really a side-effect-free steroid?
Being mild does not equate to being side-effect-free.
Anavar is a powerful androgen. And a 17caa oral steroid which will stress your liver and your lipid levels.
- Hepatotoxicity: Any oral anabolic steroid that has to be bypassed through the liver will stress your liver. However, the hepatotoxicity of oral steroids is exaggerated to a large extent. Yes, your liver values will be amplified. But just follow normal PCT and use a liver supplement during and after the cycle. You should recover in a few weeks post cycle. Oh, almost forgot to mention, never drink when you are using an oral steroid. That’s a shortcut to liver stress.
- Cholesterol: Anavar tends to be very harsh on your lipid levels. It is important that you follow a healthy diet and keep an eye on your lipids when you are using Anavar and for a few weeks after it.
- Suppression: Anavar will suppress you severely. It may or may not shut you down depending on the dosage you are taking and your individual response to the drug. But a normal PCT might be needed to help your body recover soon. Some people also add 500IU HCG in a week during the cycle to keep the natural testosterone levels up.
Jenapharm D-BOL – Dianabol is a trading name for Methandrostenolone
What is Jenapharm Stanozolol?
Jenapharm is a pharmaceutical company from Jena, Germany. Founded in 1950 in East Germany, the company focused from the beginning on the production and development of steroids. Due to the economic circumstances of the Eastern Bloc, the company initially used a unique process of steroid synthesis starting from hog bile, however, this method was abandoned a decade later in favor of total synthesis. Initially, the company produced a wide range of generic steroids, including corticosteroids, but later on, it focused on anabolic steroids, estrogens, and progestins.
Stanozolol is a synthetic steroid that is derived from testosterone and has anabolic and androgenic properties. It first came on the market in 1962. Over time, the marketing and labeling of stanozolol have been altered due to FDA requirements and changes in the drug market. In 2010, it was withdrawn from the U.S. market. It is classified as a Schedule III controlled substance under federal regulation under the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2004 and the updated Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2014.
Stanozolol can be administered orally or intramuscularly. Some of its therapeutic uses include the treatment of aplastic anemia and hereditary angioedema. It has also been indicated as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of various other medical conditions such as vascular disorders and growth failure. Side effects of stanozolol include those commonly associated with anabolic steroids such as menstrual irregularities, acne, atrophy of the breasts in women, and impotence, testicular atrophy, prostatic hypertrophy in men. Risks of heart attacks, strokes, liver damage, and psychiatric disturbances could occur in both sexes.
The drug was first banned in sport by the International Olympic Committee and the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) in 1974. Its notable mark on sports history came in 1988 when Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson tested positive for stanozolol at the Olympic Games and was stripped of his gold medal in the 100 meters.
Stanozolol is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency and included on the Prohibited List under Anabolic Agents as a substance that is prohibited at all times. Urinary metabolites of stanozolol can be detected by methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Under the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code, Olympic and Paralympic athletes who test positive for stanozolol could potentially face a four-year ban from the sport for an intentional violation.
Athletes are responsible for what they put in their bodies. Dietary supplements and other products can be mislabeled to incorrectly represent the ingredients contained therein. In the past, investigations of some nutritional supplements have shown that they contained prohibited substances, including anabolic steroids such as stanozolol. These anabolic steroids were not specifically declared by the manufacturer on the supplement product label. Multivitamin products have also shown to be cross-contaminated with anabolic steroids such as stanozolol. Consumption of cross-contaminated multivitamins could lead to inadvertent positive tests and hence athletes should be aware of the substances they are consuming at all times.
This drug has not been shown to be safe and effective for the enhancement of athletic performance. Because of the potential risk of serious adverse health effects, this drug should not be used for such a purpose.
What is Halotestin and how is it used?
Halotestin Tablets contain fluoxymesterone, an androgenic hormone.
Halotestin is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Hypogonadism in Males and Metastatic Breast Cancer in Females. Halotestin may be used alone or with other medications. Halotestin belongs to a class of drugs called Anabolic Steroids.
Fluoxymesterone is a white or nearly white, odorless, crystalline powder, melting at or about 240° C, with some decomposition. It is practically insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol, and slightly soluble in chloroform.
The chemical name for fluoxymesterone is androst-4-en-3-one, 9-fluoro-11,17- dihydroxy-17-methyl-, (11β,17β)-. The molecular formula is C20H29FO3 and the molecular weight 336.45.
Each HALOTESTIN (fluoxymesterone) tablet, for oral administration, contains 2 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg fluoxymesterone. Inactive ingredients: calcium stearate, corn starch, FD&C Yellow No. 5, lactose, sorbic acid, sucrose, tragacanth. In addition, the 2 mg tablet contains FD&C Yellow No. 6, and the 5 mg and 10 mg (10 mg green) contain FD&C Blue No. 2.
Methyltestosterone is used in men who do not make enough of a natural substance called testosterone. In males, testosterone is responsible for many normal functions, including the growth and development of the genitals, muscles, and bones. It also helps cause normal sexual development (puberty) in boys. Methyltestosterone is similar to the natural testosterone produced by your body. It belongs to a class of drugs known as androgens. It works by affecting many body systems so that the body can develop and function normally.Methyltestosterone may also be used in certain adolescent boys to cause puberty in those with delayed puberty. It may also be used to treat certain types of breast cancer in women.
Sold under the brand names Android, Metandren, and Testred among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication that is used in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men, delayed puberty in boys, at low doses as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, osteoporosis, and low sexual desire in women, and to treat breast cancer in women. It is taken by mouth or held in the cheek or under the tongue.
How to use Methyltestosterone
Use this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day.
Misuse or abuse of testosterone or testosterone-like products can cause serious side effects such as heart disease (including heart attack), stroke, liver disease, mental/mood problems, abnormal drug-seeking behavior, or improper bone growth (in adolescents). Do not increase your dose or use this drug more often or for longer than prescribed. When testosterone is misused or abused, you may have withdrawal symptoms (such as depression, irritability, tiredness) when you suddenly stop using the drug. These symptoms may last from weeks to months.
Male hypogonadism: For complete replacement in the hypogonadal male, a daily dose of 5 to 20 mg will suffice in the majority of patients. It is usually preferable to begin treatment with full therapeutic doses which are later adjusted to individual requirements. Priapism is indicative of excessive dosage and is an indication of the temporary withdrawal of the drug. Male: Gynecomastia (Excessive development of the male breasts.), and excessive frequency and duration of penile erections. Oligospermia may occur at a high dosage.
Fluid and electrolyte disturbances
Suppression of clotting factors II, V, VII, and X, bleeding in patients on concomitant anticoagulant therapy, and polycythemia.
Hypersensitivity, including skin manifestations and anaphylactoid reactions.
Drug Abuse And Dependence
Controlled Substance Class: Fluoxymesterone is a controlled substance under the Anabolic Steroids Control Act, and HALOTESTIN (fluoxymesterone) Tablets has been assigned to Schedu
Side effects of Halotestin include:
- mood changes,
- trouble sleeping,
- decreased exercise ability,
- swelling of the hands, ankles, or feet,
- unusual tiredness,
- yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice),
- dark urine,
- swelling of the face, tongue, or throat,
- severe dizziness, and
- trouble breathing
Specifically, in men:
- trouble urinating,
- breast swelling or tenderness,
- too frequent or prolonged erections, and
- an erection that is painful or lasts 4 or more hours
Specifically, in women:
- deepening of the voice,
- unusual facial or body hair growth,
- the enlarged clitoris, and
- irregular menstrual periods
Get medical help right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above.
The most common side effects of Halotestin include:
- skin color changes,
- increased or decreased sexual interest,
- oily skin,
- hair loss, and
Live Well Proviron – Mesterolone also called Pro-Viron
Mesterolone, along with other AAS, is a schedule III.
Proviron is well tolerated even as regards liver function. Laboratory tests conducted during high-dose and long-term treatment produced no evidence for an injurious effect.
Pharma Grade Fertilan Clomid – Clomifene
|Trade names||Clomid, Serophene, others|
|Other names||Clomiphene; Chloramifene; Chloramiphene; MRL-41; MRL/41; NSC-35770|
Clomid was one of the original drugs used in post-cycle therapy to stave off gynocomastia and raise the body’s natural testosterone levels. It is not an anabolic steroid, but a prescription drug generally prescribed to women as a fertility aid. This is due to the fact that clomiphene citrate shows a pronounced ability to stimulate ovulation. This is accomplished by blocking/minimizing the effects of estrogen in the body. To be more specific Clomid is chemically a synthetic estrogen with both agonist/antagonist properties. In certain target tissues, it can block the ability of estrogen to bind with its corresponding receptor. Its clinical use is therefore to oppose the negative feedback of estrogens on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, which enhances the release of LH and FSH. This of course can help to induce ovulation.
Understanding the two main thyroid hormones: T3 & T4
In a complex dance, the hypothalamus releases something called thyrotropin-releasing hormone, which then triggers the pituitary gland to produce something called the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The TSH is then what helps your thyroid gland release T4 and T3.
|Trade names||Dilaterol, Spiropent, Ventipulmin, and others|
“Clenbuterol is like a relative of salbutamol, which is what’s in Ventolin puffers,” said Professor Lisa Nissen, head of the School of Clinical Sciences at the Queensland University of Technology. The salbutamol in the puffer relaxes the muscles that line the airway, allowing users to breath more easily, she said.
“With Clenbuterol and that family of medications, they can also have anabolic effects, which means they can build your skeletal muscle or your muscle bulk.
“They can also speed up your basal metabolic rate, and the way that you churn through calories. So not only will you be ripped – you’ll get that muscle definition – but you’ll also speed up your metabolism.”
But on the flip side, they could be toxic to the heart, Prof Nissen said, especially for those with underlying cardiovascular conditions.
“It’s like putting a V8 engine in your heart, it’s not really built to be sped up at that rate. The consequence, in its extreme, can be a heart attack.”
Prof Nissen said there were a number of other, much less harmful drugs available on prescription for sensible weight loss that could be taken in consultation with medical practitioners.
Lead author Jonathan Brett from the Department of Health at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital said general practitioners needed to be aware of the harms of clenbuterol use, which are similar to those of stimulants.
A common misconception about Clenbuterol is that it has anabolic properties, and can increase muscle mass when used in higher dosages. This claim has never been substantiated, and likely originated from equine research. A beta-2 agonist, Clenbuterol has been found to increase short-term work rate and cardiovascular output, and consequently, its anabolic effects in horses can be attributed to exercise output and increased caloric intake. Given its ability to increase basal metabolic rate, maximum heart rate, and exercise output, Clenbuterol has ergogenic properties more closely related to ephedrine or amphetamine.
The notion that Clenbuterol is an anabolic agent likely originated from author and renowned authority on performance-enhancement Dan Duchaine. Duchaine popularized the drug in the bodybuilding community and was the first to suggest the drug had muscle-building properties. Likewise, Duchaine erred in promoting the drug Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) as an anabolic agent and served time for the unlawful possession and distribution of the drug in the mid-1990s. As of 2011, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) listed Clenbuterol as an anabolic agent, despite the fact there is no evidence to suggest this is the case.
Live Well Arimidex – Anastrozole
|Arimidex, Aremed, others|
|Other names||Anastrazole; anastrozol; ICI-D1033; ZD-1033|
Anastrozole is used to treat breast cancer in women after menopause. Some breast cancers are made to grow faster by a natural hormone called estrogen. Anastrozole decreases the amount of estrogen the body makes and helps to slow or reverse the growth of these breast cancers.
- aching or pain in the joints and muscles.
- menopausal symptoms.
- low mood and depression.
- difficulty sleeping.
- fatigue (extreme tiredness)
- osteoporosis (thinning of the bone)
- In a clinical study of women with early breast cancer, weakness and fatigue occurred in 19% of women taking Arimidex for 5 years. And these side effects occurred in 18% of women taking the cancer drug tamoxifen for 5 years. Fatigue and weakness are common side effects of cancer treatments.
What does anastrozole do to your body?
- upset stomach,
- loss of appetite,
- body aches and pains (back pain, bone pain, joint pain or stiffness),
- breast swelling/tenderness/pain,
Para Pharma Aromasin – Exemestane
Exemestane has been used in doping to raise luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, which in turn increases the ratio of male over female sexual hormones and so improves performance. The drug also counteracts gynecomastia as well as fat and water retention following excessive aromatase production due to testosterone doping.
Third-Generation Aromatase Inhibitors
The only registered steroidal inhibitor of the current generation is exemestane (Aromasin).
Novadex – Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen, sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men. It is also being studied for other types of cancer. It has been used for Albright syndrome. Tamoxifen is typically taken daily by mouth for five years for breast cancer.
Serious side effects include a small increased risk of uterine cancer, stroke, vision problems, and pulmonary embolism. Common side effects include irregular periods, weight loss, and hot flashes. It may cause harm to the baby if taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding. It is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) and works by decreasing the growth of breast cancer cells. It is a member of the triphenylethylene group of compounds.
- Menopause-like symptoms, including hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness.
- Weight gain (more common) or fluid retention (edema).
- Irregular or loss of menstrual periods.
- Leg swelling.
- Vaginal discharge.
- Skin rash.
- Erectile dysfunction.
EPO – Erythropoietin
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone produced by the kidney that promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Once it is made, it acts on red blood cells to protect them against destruction. At the same time, it stimulates stem cells of the bone marrow to increase the production of red blood cells.
The kidney cells that make erythropoietin are sensitive to low oxygen levels in the blood that travels through the kidney. These cells make and release erythropoietin when the oxygen level is too low. A low oxygen level may indicate a diminished number of red blood cells (anemia), or hemoglobin molecules that carry oxygen through the body.
Erythropoietin stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. The resulting rise in red cells increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.
As the prime regulator of red cell production, erythropoietin’s major functions are to:
- Promote the development of red blood cells.
- Initiate the synthesis of hemoglobin, the molecule within red blood cells that transports oxygen.
Chemically, erythropoietin a protein with an attached sugar (a glycoprotein). It is one of a number of similar glycoproteins that serve as stimulants for the growth of specific types of blood cells in the bone marrow.
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone produced by the kidney. Erythropoietin promotes the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. The erythropoietin hormone level can be detected and measured in the blood (the EPO test).
Usage as a doping product
As a performance-enhancing drug, EPO has been banned since the early 1990s, but a first test was not available until the 2000 Summer Olympics. Before this test was available, some athletes were sanctioned after confessing to having used EPO, for example in the Festina affair, when a car with doping products for the Festina cycling team was found.
The first doping test in cycling was used in the 2001 La Flèche Wallonne. The first rider to test positive in that race was Bo Hamburger, although he was later acquitted because his B-sample was not conclusive.
The U.S. Postal Service Pro Cycling Team, under the leadership of Lance Armstrong and Johan Bruyneel, ran a sophisticated doping program that lasted for many years during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Erythropoietin was a common substance used by cyclists.
A 2007 study showed that EPO has a significant effect on exercise performance, but a 2017 study showed that the effects of EPO administered to amateur cyclists were not distinguishable from placebo.
In March 2019, American mixed martial artist and former UFC Bantamweight Champion T.J. Dillashaw tested positive for EPO in a drug test administered by USADA, and he subsequently was stripped of the UFC bantamweight title and suspended for 2 years.
Ningbo Renjian HCG – Human chorionic gonadotropin
Anabolic steroid adjunct
In the world of performance-enhancing drugs, HCG is increasingly used in combination with various anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) cycles. As a result, HCG is included in some sports’ illegal drug lists.
When exogenous AAS are put into the male body, natural negative-feedback loops cause the body to shut down its own production of testosterone via shutdown of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA). This causes testicular atrophy, among other things. HCG is commonly used during and after steroid cycles to maintain and restore testicular size as well as normal testosterone production.
High levels of AASs, that mimic the body’s natural testosterone, trigger the hypothalamus to shut down its production of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. Without GnRH, the pituitary gland stops releasing luteinizing hormone (LH). LH normally travels from the pituitary via the bloodstream to the testes, where it triggers the production and release of testosterone. Without LH, the testes shut down their production of testosterone. In males, HCG helps restore and maintain testosterone production in the testes by mimicking LH and triggering the production and release of testosterone.
If HCG is used for too long and in too high a dose, the resulting rise in natural testosterone and estrogen would eventually inhibit endogenous production of luteinizing hormone via negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
Professional athletes who have tested positive for HCG have been temporarily banned from their sport, including a 50-game ban from MLB for Manny Ramirez in 2009 and a 4-game ban from the NFL for Brian Cushing for a positive urine test for HCG. Mixed Martial Arts fighter Dennis Siver was fined $19,800 and suspended for 9 months for being tested positive after his bout at UFC 168.
- swelling or water weight gain,
- breast tenderness or swelling, or.
- injection site reactions (pain, swelling, or irritation).
Human chorionic gonadotrophin is a hormone that plays a crucial role in providing nutrition to the growing fetus. This is one of the reasons why HCG is one of the indicators of pregnancy. HCG levels increase when a woman becomes pregnant.
HMG – Human Menopausal Gonadotropin – Menotropin
Menotropin (also called human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG) is a hormonally active medication for the treatment of fertility disturbances. Frequently the plural is used as the medication is a mixture of gonadotropins. Menotropins are extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women.
Ashwagandha, or Indian ginseng, has long played a role in traditional medicines as a remedy for several forms of sexual dysfunction. A 2013 study found that 46 males with low sperm counts who took 675 milligrams of ashwagandha daily for 90 days saw a 167% increase in their sperm count.
What is Lipolysis?
Lipolysis /lɪˈpɒlɪsɪs/ is the metabolic pathway through which lipid triglycerides are hydrolyzed into glycerol and three fatty acids. It is used to mobilize stored energy during fasting or exercise and usually occurs in fat adipocytes. Lipolysis is induced by several hormones, including glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and cortisol.
To obtain energy from fat, triglycerides must first be broken down by hydrolysis into their two principal components, fatty acids, and glycerol. This process, called lipolysis, takes place in the cytoplasm. The resulting fatty acids are oxidized by β-oxidation into acetyl CoA, which is used by the Krebs cycle. The glycerol that is released from triglycerides after lipolysis directly enters the glycolysis pathway as DHAP. Because one triglyceride molecule yields three fatty acid molecules with as much as 16 or more carbons in each one, fat molecules yield more energy than carbohydrates and are an important source of energy for the human body. Triglycerides yield more than twice the energy per unit mass when compared to carbohydrates and proteins. Therefore, when glucose levels are low, triglycerides can be converted into acetyl CoA molecules and used to generate ATP through aerobic respiration.
The breakdown of fatty acids, called fatty acid oxidation or beta (β)-oxidation, begins in the cytoplasm, where fatty acids are converted into fatty acyl CoA molecules. This fatty acyl CoA combines with carnitine to create a fatty acylcarnitine molecule, which helps to transport the fatty acid across the mitochondrial membrane. Once inside the mitochondrial matrix, the fatty acylcarnitine molecule is converted back into fatty acyl CoA and then into acetyl CoA. The newly formed acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle and is used to produce ATP in the same way as acetyl CoA derived from pyruvate.
Athletes generally go on a steroid-taking cycle for six to eight weeks, and then they come off for about two months before going back on. And when they’re off, side effects revert back to normal.
Notes on Book – Science, and Development of Muscle Hypertrophy – Brad Schoenfld – Second Edition
The neuromuscular system includes all the muscles in the body and the nerves serving them. Every movement your body makes requires communication between the brain and the muscles. The nervous system provides the link between thoughts and actions by relaying messages that travel so fast you don’t even notice. The neuromuscular system is composed of a neural circuit including motor neurons, sensory neurons, and skeletal muscle fibers. The system is essential to movements of the body, the control of posture, and breathing. The motor nerve fiber makes synaptic contacts with the muscle fiber at the neuromuscular junction.
The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things. Endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream. This lets the hormones travel to cells in other parts of the body. The endocrine hormones help control mood, growth and development, the way our organs work, metabolism, and reproduction. The endocrine system regulates how much of each hormone is released. Endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream. This lets the hormones travel to cells in other parts of the body. The endocrine hormones help control mood, growth and development, the way our organs work, metabolism, and reproduction. The endocrine system regulates how much of each hormone is released.
- growth and development.
- sexual function and reproduction.
- heart rate.
- blood pressure.
- sleeping and waking cycles.
- body temperature.
In paracrine signaling, they act on nearby cells. Autocrine signals include extracellular matrix molecules and various factors that stimulate cell growth. An example of paracrine signals is the chemical transmitted from nerve to muscle that causes the muscle to contract.
More Info at:
*Disclaimer: This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare provider.
Please consult your healthcare provider with any questions or concerns you may have regarding your condition.
The information provided is for educational purposes only and is not intended as a diagnosis, treatment, or prescription of any kind. The decision to use, or not to use, any information is the sole responsibility of the reader. These statements are not expressions of legal opinion relative to the scope of practice, medical diagnosis, or medical advice, nor do they represent an endorsement of any product, company, or specific massage therapy technique, modality, or approach. All trademarks, registered trademarks, brand names, registered brand names, logos, and company logos referenced in this post are the property of their owners.