Chronic Pain Syndrome (CPS)

Is chronic pain syndrome the same as CRPS?

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) a chronic pain syndrome with two forms. CRPS 1 currently replaces the term ‘reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome’. It is a chronic nerve disorder that occurs most often in the arms or legs after a minor or major injury.

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a leg. CRPS typically develops after an injury, surgery, a stroke, or a heart attack. The pain is out of proportion to the severity of the initial injury.

Faces pain rating scale. Comparative pain scale chart. Pain assessment tool.

Chronic Pain Syndrome (CPS) Chronic Pain Syndrome (CPS), Lower Back pain[/caption]

Chronic pain syndrome (CPS) is a common problem that presents a major challenge to health-care providers because of its complex natural history, unclear etiology, and poor response to therapy. CPS is a poorly defined condition.

What is considered chronic pain?
Chronic pain is often defined as any pain lasting more than 12 weeks. Whereas acute pain is a normal sensation that alerts us to possible injury, chronic pain is very different. Chronic pain persists—often for months or even longer.
What are the causes of chronic pain?
The disease can also be the underlying cause of chronic pain. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia are well-known culprits, but persistent pain may also be due to such ailments as cancer, multiple sclerosis, stomach ulcers, AIDS, and gallbladder disease.
What is the definition of acute pain?
Acute pain is a type of pain that typically lasts less than 3 to 6 months or pain that is directly related to soft tissue damage such as a sprained ankle or a paper cut. …Acute pain is distinct from chronic pain and is relatively sharper and severe.
What are the signs and symptoms of pain?
The symptoms of chronic pain include:
    • Pain that does not go away as expected after an illness or injury.
    • Pain that may be described as a shooting, burning, aching, or electrical.
  • Discomfort, soreness, tightness, or stiffness.
Can depression cause chronic pain?
Pain and the problems it causes can wear you down over time and affect your mood. Chronic pain causes a number of problems that can lead to depression, such as trouble sleeping and stress. Disabling pain can cause low self-esteem due to work, legal or financial issues.
How do you manage chronic pain?
    1. Learn deep breathing or meditation to help you relax.
    1. Reduce stress in your life. …
    1. Boost chronic pain relief with the natural endorphins from exercise.
    1. Cut back on alcohol, which can worsen sleep problems.
    1. Join a support group. …
    1. Don’t smoke. …
  1. Track your pain level and activities every day.

Pain is your body’s normal reaction to an injury or illness, a warning that something is wrong. When your body heals, you usually stop hurting.

But for many people, pain continues long after its cause is gone. When it lasts for 3 to 6 months or more, it’s called chronic pain. When you hurt day after day, it can take a toll on your emotional and physical health.

About 25% of people with chronic pain will go on to have a condition called chronic pain syndrome (CPS). That’s when people have symptoms beyond pain alone, like depression and anxiety, which interfere with their daily lives.

CPS can be hard to treat, but it’s not impossible. A mix of treatments like counseling, physical therapy, and relaxation techniques can help relieve your pain and the other symptoms that come with it.

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What Causes Chronic Pain Syndrome?

Doctors don’t know exactly what causes CPS. It often starts with an injury or painful condition such as:

  • Arthritis and other joint problems
  • Back pain
  • Headaches
  • Muscle strains and sprains
  • Repetitive stress injuries, when the same movement over and over puts a strain on a body part
  • Fibromyalgia, a condition that causes muscle pain throughout the body
  • Nerve damage
  • Lyme disease
  • Broken bones
  • Cancer
  • Acid reflux or ulcers
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • Endometriosis, when tissue in the uterus grows outside of it
  • Surgery

The roots of CPS are both physical and mental. Some experts think that people with the condition have a problem with the system of nerves and glands that the body uses to handle stress. That makes them feel pain differently.

Other experts say CPS is a learned response. When you’re in pain, you can start to repeat certain behaviors. For example, you might complain about your pain, lie down to rest, use pain relievers, or take time off from work. These behaviors can act like little rewards that encourage the pain to continue, even after the original cause of the pain is gone.

CPS can affect people of all ages and both sexes, but it’s most common in women. People with major depression and other mental health conditions are more likely to get CPS.

How does massage help chronic pain?
A massage for chronic pain can help decrease pain, decrease tension and reduce stress. Many physiological effects occur during massage for chronic pain, the most common being increased temperature, the removal of waste products, and increased endorphins, serotonin, and dopamine.
Most people go to massage therapists to reduce pain. There’s a release of serotonin, which is the body’s natural production of anti-pain chemicals. … With more deep sleep, you have less pain. Fibromyalgia and arthritis are two chronic pain syndromes that can be positively impacted by massage therapy.
Why can massage reduce pain?
Massage therapy relaxes muscle tissue, which reduces painful contractions and spasms. Massage can also reduce nerve compression. To understand this, consider that when muscles are contracted, they sometimes compress the nerves around them.

According to the National Institutes of Health, more than one-third of all adults will experience chronic pain at some point in their lives. Chronic pain is pain that persists or returns for varying periods of time (usually longer than six months). Chronic pain often involves deep somatic and visceral tissues. The painful area can be indefinite or poorly localized, and the quality of pain may change over time.

Massage is the second most sought-after form of pain relief, after pain medication, and is a safe and effective way to relieve pain in both elderly and young populations. In fact, pain management programs at hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and other facilities are increasingly adopting massage as a tool to combat chronic pain.

Clients experiencing chronic pain should be under the care of a physician who will investigate the cause of the pain. Studies suggest that massage can relieve chronic back pain, tension, and post-traumatic headaches more effectively than other common therapies, and reduces pain and muscle spasms, such as those associated with heart bypass surgery.

Massage increases the release of endorphins, helping decrease the perception of pain and the accompanying stress, anxiety, and depression that are associated with it.

Getting through a day of chronic pain can feel overwhelming. At night, pain, and the stress related to it can keep them awake, making them less able to face the next day. Worry often accompanies chronic pain, regarding its source and what can be done to make it go away. Chronic pain can affect an individual’s ability to work, and treatment can be a financial drain. Normal activities may become difficult, and fears of dependency on others for either financial support or physical care may exacerbate feelings of stress and depression, adding to the pain.

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In some cases, injury or illness also produces a pain cycle, a complicated series of events that reinforce one another, producing chronic or constant pain over a long period of time. Chronic pain is a heavy emotional weight. It is associated with a substantial amount of stress and can take a heavy toll on an individual’s emotional and physical stamina, wearing their patients.

Massage can be effective in pain management, interrupting the cycle of pain through the release of endorphins, and alleviating pain to a substantial degree. Reducing stress, promoting relaxation, and lessening the need for pharmaceutical intervention are significant benefits for clients with chronic pain, but massage may also help people learn to cope more effectively with their pain.

By treating the whole body, rather than a localized area, massage can reorient the individual, increasing awareness of the body, and helping them focus on something outside of the pain.

Chronic pain causes the muscles around any painful area to “tense up.” This action, known as “guarding,” supports and protects the damaged area. Usually, over time, as the muscles relax, the pain is relieved.

With persistent or chronic pain, muscles contract but do not release. In their contracted state, muscles can press on nerves, causing numbness, tingling, and more pain. Massage can help stretch the muscles and stimulates the nervous system, which can also help relax tense muscles. The more pain we experience, the more diminished is our capacity for any kind of movement or exercise. The cycle of pain continues when the reduction in movement decreases circulation and flexibility and increases the pain.

The cycle of pain also encourages the development of trigger points in areas with poor circulation. These points become increasingly irritated and refer to pain and tingling sensations from the muscles and connective tissues to other parts of the body. Referred pain responds well to trigger-point therapy, sustained pressure, and muscle stretching. Very sensitive trigger points can be numbed by applying ice to the area before a massage.

Massage helps chronically tight or tense muscles experience more efficient blood circulation. When muscles are tense, they receive less oxygen and are less able to carry away waste products manufactured by the body. Inflammation, as well as normal muscle function, contributes to the accumulation of waste, and can also irritate nerves in the tense area, causing pain to spread.

The cycle of pain and poor circulation can also encourage a build-up of collagen fibers, the beginnings of scar tissue, as collagen fibers “glue” the muscles into their shortened state. Massage helps to increase circulation, rehydrate, and soften the contracted muscles and fascia, helping to “unglue” the fibers to which collagen has adhered.

As massage relaxes the nervous system, blood vessels dilate, increasing blood flow, which flushes away the waste products from the muscles. As circulation is increased, healing oxygen and nutrients are directed back to the muscle tissues.

Massage helps restore normal movement by increasing circulation, releasing trigger points, removing waste products, and stretching shortened or “glued” muscles. Massage can help a person feel better, increasing their level of energy and desire for more physical activity. This enhanced feeling of well-being counteracts the effects of stress and can increase one’s awareness of how and where the body is holding tension as a result of stress.

Further Reading


*Disclaimer: This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare provider.
Please consult your healthcare provider with any questions or concerns you may have regarding your condition.
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